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1. Children’s problems must be considered in the context of their ____.
a. individual nature
b. family dynamics
d. all of these
2. Victor is fearful of approaching new situations and often appears inhibited. Victor’s mother reports that she
struggles with similar difficulties and he may have inherited it from her. This is an example of ____.
a. emotional influences
b. biological influences
c. cognitive influences
d. behavioral influences
3. Etiology refers to the ____ of childhood disorders.
a. possible root causes
b. possible treatments
c. various correlations
d. various preventions
4. What is an underlying assumption with regard to abnormal child behavior?
a. Abnormal development is solely determined by the child’s genetic makeup.
b. Abnormal development is solely determined by the child’s environment.
c. Abnormal development involves continuities and discontinuities.
d. Abnormal development focuses on extreme or bizarre behavior.
5. Isabella is 3 years old, and frequently demands attention, overreacts, and refuses to go to bed. These
behaviors are considered ____.
a. typical because of her age
b. diagnosable as a clinical disorder
c. signs of an overly sensitive child
d. early warning signs of future difficulties
6. Brett is an aggressive preschooler, who often bites other children and throws toys at his teacher. When Brett
finished 3rd grade, he was asked to find another school to attend since he had repeatedly hit his classmates and
kicked the principal. Brett’s behavioral patterns are an example of
a. abnormal behavior that follows a discontinuities pattern.
b. abnormal behavior that follows a continuity pattern.
c. normal age appropriate development.
d. sociopathic behavior that is rare in young children.
7. When developmental psychopathologists view adaptive and maladaptive behaviors as the result of previous
interactions and experiences spread over several years, they refer to the process as
a. typical development.
b. environmental determinants.
c. developmental cascades.
d. developmental theoretics.
8. An integrative approach to the psychopathology of a child means that
a. maladaptive behaviors are acceptable.
b. all development takes place on a continuum.
c. more than one therapist has to see the child.
d. many theories and concepts can be used to explain behavior.
9. Most often, adaptational failure is due to a(n) ____.
a. single, definable cause
b. longstanding biological maladaptation
c. ongoing interaction between the individual and environment
d. sudden onset of an environmental challenge
10. A toddler learning to make sounds such as ―mememe‖ and ―bagabaga‖ before learning how to use
intelligible language indicates a structure and process to development, otherwise known as the
a. organization of development.
b. hierarchy of development.
c. biological perspective.
d. integrative perspective.
11. The windows of time during which environmental influences on development are enhanced are called ____.
a. sensitive periods
b. critical periods
c. crucial periods
d. necessary periods
12. ____, The brain develops and grows over a lifetime, but from birth to 11 years, the most dramatic changes
occur. Problems or disruptions that occur when a child is young can lead to
a. disorganized development.
b. organic disorders.
c. hierarchical development.
d. broken synapses.
13. Children’s development occurs in a(n) ____ manner.
a. mostly random
b. strictly organized
c. strictly hierarchical
d. organized and hierarchical
14. The developmental psychopathology approach to studying childhood disorders emphasizes the importance
b. processes and tasks
15. The two terms that are used to explain how a child’s interaction with his/her environment can lead to the
development of maladaptive behaviors are
a. organized and interactive
b. interactive and proactive
c. transaction and interdependent
d. transaction and transition
16. The role that a child’s primary caretaker has in terms of that child’s brain development is crucial, since
those early experiences form the part of the brain that is responsible for their__.
a. planning and complex processes
b. Problem-solving skills
c. emotion, personality, and behavior
d. Fine and gross motor skills
17. Brain maturity occurs in a(n) ____ fashion.
a. mostly random
b. strictly organized
c. strictly hierarchical
d. organized and hierarchical
18. Which statement about neural development is false?
a. Most developing axons reach their destination even before a baby is born.
b. Synapses both proliferate and disappear in early childhood.
c. Brain connections are relatively predetermined and cannot be changed by the environment.
d. Primitive areas of the brain develop first.
19. Which statement about neural development is true?
a. Major restructuring of the brain in relation to puberty occurs between 6 and 9 years of age.
b. The brain stops developing after 3 years of age.
c. Primitive areas of the brain mature last.
d. The prefrontal cortex and the cerebellum are not wired until a person is 5 to 7 years old.
20. Which statement about our genetic makeup is false?
a. Genes determine behavior.
b. Genes are composed of DNA.
c. Genes produce proteins.
d. The expression of genes is influenced by the environment.
21. The problem with family aggregation studies is that they ____.
a. are difficult to carry out
b. do not control for environmental variables
c. only tell us about the influence of the environment
d. only tell us about chromosomal abnormalities
22. Molecular geneticists focus on finding a specific gene for childhood disorder, while behavioral geneticists
a. study the possible connection between genetic predisposition and behavior
b. study the possible connection between genes and education
c. focus on brain development between 3 and 5 years
d. focus on neural synapsis developing until age 11
23. Which part of the brain is most responsible for regulating our emotional experiences, expressions, and
c. Basal ganglia
d. Limbic system
24. Epinephrine is also known as ____.
25. Which part of the brain is implicated in disorders affecting motor behavior?
c. Basal ganglia
d. Limbic system
26. The ____ gives us the distinct qualities that make us human and allows us to think about the future, to be
playful, and to be creative.
a. cerebral cortex
b. limbic system
27. The _________ lobes contain the functions underlying much of our thinking and reasoning abilities.
28. The ____ gland produces epinephrine in response to stress.
29. Mike is having a very difficult time in school. Which gland would produce epinephrine in response to the
stress he is experiencing?
30. Cindy has recently been diagnosed with anorexia. From a biological perspective, which neurotransmitter
plays a role in eating disorders?
31. The ____ gland oversees the body’s regulatory functions by producing several hormones, including estrogen
32. ____ has been implicated in several psychological disorders, especially those connected to a person’s
response to stress and ability to regulate emotions.
a. The HPA axis
33. What is an inhibitory neurotransmitter that reduces overall arousal and levels of anger, hostility, and
34. ____ acts like a ―switch‖ in the brain, turning on various circuits associated with certain types of behavior.
35. The neurotransmitter implicated in regulatory problems, such as eating and sleep disorders, is ____.
36. The child-caregiver role helps children explore their own emotions. Which style of parenting allows for the
healthiest development of the child?
37. ACTH causes the adrenal glands to release ____.
38. James often appears to be in a bad mood and he is easily frustrated when given challenging tasks. His
temperament would be described as ____.
a. angry and intense
b. negative affect or irritability
c. fearful or inhibited
d. positive affect and approach
39. Kim had been physically abused when she was 5, and is now a 10-year-old showing signs of ―numbing,‖
which is an emotional dysregulation. In Kim’s situation, is her behavior
a. completely maladaptive and in need of change?
b. adaptive and protective?
c. maladaptive and will lead to a personality disorder?
d. adaptive and should not be changed?
40. A child who cannot control his temper has problems in emotion ____.
41. _______ relates to how children think about themselves and others, resulting in mental representations of
themselves, relationships, and their social world.
a. Social cognition
b. Observational learning
c. Cognitive mediation
d. Cognitive development
42. Individual differences in emotion ____ account for differing responses to a stressful environment.
43. ____ problems refer to weak or absent control structures, whereas ____ problems indicate that existing
control structures operative in a maladaptive way.
a. Regulation; dysregulation
b. Dysregulation; regulation
c. Reactivity; regulation
d. Regulation; reactivity
44. Temperament ____.
a. refers to a child’s unpredictable behavior
b. shapes a child’s approach to the environment and vice versa
c. is not related to personality
d. forms very late in development
45. Brendan is considered by his caregivers as a ―slow-to-warm-up child,‖ who is cautious in approaching novel
or challenging situations. Which of the following would describe Brendan’s temperament?
a. Positive affect and approach
b. Fearful or inhibited
c. Negative affect or irritability
d. Adaptive with negative mood
46. Sharon is a psychologist who is using the ABA method with her client Katie, a difficult 6-year-old. As an
ABA therapist, Sharon would focus on
a. behavior only.
b. antecedents and consequences only.
c. behavior and consequences only.
d. behavior, antecedents, and consequences.
47. ____ explain the acquisition of problem behavior on the basis of paired associations between previously
neutral stimuli (e.g., homework), and unconditioned stimuli (e.g., parental anger).
a. Operant models
b. Classical conditioning models
c. Social learning models
d. Social cognition models
48. ____ theorists emphasize attributional biases, modeling, and cognitions in their explanation of abnormal
c. Social learning
49. ____ models portray the child’s environment as a series of nested and interconnected structures.
50. John Bowlby’s research on attachment showed that a child who has a secure attachment with a caregiver
generally leads to
a. atypical development.
b. extra neurotransmitters being released.
c. the development of a child’s positive internal working model.
d. an unknown outcome, since that attachment is broken after 12 months of age.
51. Attachment theory considers crying (in an infant) to be a behavior that ____.
a. serves to keep predators away
b. stimulates the immune system
c. irritates others
d. enhances relationships with the caregiver
52. According to Bronfenberger’s ecological model of environmental influences, which influence plays a role in
the child’s life?
a. Church or synagogue
b. Neighborhood play areas
c. Mass media
d. All of the above
53. The process of attachment typically begins between ____ of age.
a. 0 to 2 months
b. 6 to 12 months
c. 12 to 18 months
d. 18 to 24 months
54. Infants that explore the environment with little affective interaction with the caregiver are likely to have a(n)
____ attachment pattern.
55. Jace is a baby that often seems nervous in new situations and around new people and is not easily comforted
by his mother in these situations. Jace most likely has which attachment pattern?
56. Luca has been showing aggressive behavior with his peers and has difficulty conducting himself in a normal
fashion, and is constantly getting in trouble at school. According to attachment theories, which type of
attachment pattern did Luca most likely exhibit as a child?
57. Which attachment pattern has been linked to phobias and anxiety problems?
58. Which term describes a child’s model of relationships in terms of what the child expects from others and
how the child relates to others?
a. Internal working model
b. External working model
c. Internal attachment model
d. External attachment model
59. _____ theorists argue that a child’s behavior can only be understood in terms of relationships with others.
c. Family systems
60. The _____ view of child development recognizes the importance of balancing the abilities of individuals
with the challenges and risks of their environments.
a. health promotion
b. family systems
61. Discuss the three major underlying assumptions regarding abnormal child behavior.
The first underlying assumption is that abnormal child behavior is multiply determined. Thus, we have to look beyond
the child’s current symptoms and consider developmental pathways and interacting events that, over time, contribute
to the expression of a particular disorder. The second assumption extends the influence of multiple causes by stressing
how the child and environment are interdependent—how they influence each other. This concept departs from the
tradition of viewing the environment as acting on the child to cause changes in development, and instead argues that
children also influence their own environment. In simple terms, the concept of interdependence appreciates how
nature and nurture work together and are, in fact, interconnected. Few psychological disorders or impairments
suddenly emerge without at least some warning signs or connections to earlier developmental issues. This connection
is apparent, for example, in early-onset and persistent conduct disorders, with which parents and other adults often see
troublesome behaviors at a young age that continue in some form into adolescence and adulthood.
62. Distinguish between continuous and discontinuous patterns of behavior development. Which category would an
eating disorder fall? Which category would persistent conduct disorders fall?
Continuity implies that developmental changes are gradual and quantitative (i.e., expressed as amounts that can be
measured numerically, such as weight and height changes) and that future behavior patterns can be predicted from
earlier patterns. Discontinuity, in contrast, implies that developmental changes are abrupt and qualitative (i.e.,
expressed as qualities that cannot be measured numerically, such as changes in mood or expression) and that future
behavior is poorly predicted by earlier patterns.An eating disorder is discontinuous. Persistent conduct disorder is
63. What is meant by using an integrative approach to understanding factors that influence a child’s behavior?
Because no single theoretical orientation can explain various behaviors or disorders, we must be familiar with many
theories and conceptual models—each contributes important insights into normal and abnormal development.
64. Most children follow a predictable pattern of development in terms of walking, talking, learning, and so on.
Additionally most clinical disorders commonly appear at predictable points in development. For the following ages, list
two common clinical disorders: 0–2, 2–5, and 6–11.
0–2: mental retardation and autism; 2–5: speech and language disorders, anxiety, and problems stemming from
child abuse and neglect; 6–11: ADHD and learning disorders.
65. How can a baby with a difficult temperament influence and be influenced by the environment?
This dimension describes the ―difficult child,‖ who is predominantly negative or intense in mood, not very adaptable,
and arrhythmic. Some children with this temperament show distress when faced with novel or challenging situations,
and others are prone to general distress or irritability, including when limitations are placed on them.
66. Discuss how children learn from their emotions and the emotional expression of others.
Children have a natural tendency to attend to emotional cues from others, which helps them learn to interpret and
regulate their own emotions. They learn, from a very young