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1. Which of the following is false about visual adaptations?
a) Animals that inhabit environments with different patterns of light
absorption have evolved different visual sensitivities.
b) Some guppies are more sensitive to red light while others are more
sensitive to blue light.
c) Nocturnal animals have a much higher proportion of cones than
d) Animals that have very good binocular vision have a much smaller
field of view.
2. Which of the following is true about sensory adaptations?
a) All snake species respond at higher rates to chemical cues than to
visual or thermal cues.
b) Noctuid moths have ears that provide feedback on wing position and
c) Fruit flies show an increase in eye size that is related to their time in
an environment with minimal light.
d) The stripes on zebras act as insect repellant.
3. According to the sensory drive hypothesis,
a) sophisticated sensory abilities emerge when there are harsh
b) natural selection favors sensory adaptations that maximize the
effectiveness of communication in a new environment.
c) selective pressures reduce sensory traits that are too costly to
d) sensory preferences drive particular traits to become selected for.
4. In one experiment, Greylag geese retrieved and attempted to incubate giant
artificial eggs, while neglecting their own normal sized eggs. This is an example of
a) sensory bias.
b) Sensory exploitation.
d) a and b.
Instructor’s Manual for Comparative Cognition: Multiple Choice Questions pg. 11
5. The period in which experience dependent changes can have profound and
enduring effects on development is called the
a) critical period.
b) sensitive period.
c) sensory period.
d) experience-dependent period.
6. Which of the following statements does not fit the compensatory plasticity
a) A loss or a deficit in one sense leads to a heightened capacity in
b) Once one sense becomes dominant during development, it cannot be
c) Compensatory plasticity provides a mechanism for adaptation
d) None of the above statements fit the hypothesis.
7. How do sensory receptors code for stimulus duration?
a) Pattern of firing.
b) Rate of firing.
c) Number of neurons firing.
d) Duration of firing.
8. What is the simplest way to study discrimination abilities in animals?
a) Breed and raise animals under different stimulus conditions.
b) Experimentally manipulate the physical attributes of a sensory
c) Train animals to make one response when a stimulus is present
and another when it is absent.
d) Vigilance tasks.
9. What happens between sensation and perception?
a) Sensory information is taken apart and then recombined and
integrated at relay nuclei.
b) Sensory information is filtered by specialized neurons.
c) Sensory information divided into elements and then reprocessed to
produce a perceptual whole.
d) Sensation and perception happen at the same time.
Instructor’s Manual for Comparative Cognition: Multiple Choice Questions pg. 12
10. Schneider showed that lesions of the visual cortex rendered golden hamsters
unable to discriminate between visual stimuli, but did not impair the ability to turn
towards a food reward. How can this be?
a) The hamsters could smell the food.
b) The visual system that identifies the ‘where’ of stimuli was intact
in these hamsters.
c) The hamsters’ lateral geniculate nucleus showed compensatory
d) Lesions of the visual cortex do not impair a hamsters’ ability to attend
to relevant stimuli.
11. Blue jays were better at detecting one type of moth over another if it appeared in
successive trials. What does this finding suggest?
a) Blue jays were using selective attention.
b) Blue jays were using sustained attention.
c) Blue jays were forming search images.
d) a and c.
12. The Sensory Drive Hypothesis states: “When populations occupy new habitats
with different sensory environments, natural selection favors adaptations that
maximize the effectiveness of ______”.
c) prey detection.
13. What is the biggest indicator of how much of the environment an animal can see
a) Where it’s eyes are located.
b) How big it’s eyes are.
c) How big it’s pupils are.
d) How big it’s head is.
14. Vision is an example of a
c) sensory modality.
Instructor’s Manual for Comparative Cognition: Multiple Choice Questions pg. 13
15. Which of the following is the best definition for psychophysics?
a) A branch of psychology concerned with how sensations are
translated into mental processes.
b) A branch of psychology concerned with the interaction between the
physics of movement (e.g., inertia, momentum) and perception.
c) A branch of psychology concerned with examining psychopaths.
d) A branch of psychology that examines how learning and memory
16. What is the primary factor which shapes the types of sensory information that
an animal uses to find food or mates and to hide from predators?
a) The size of the animal.
b) How plentiful food, mates, young and predators are.
c) The environment in which they are active.
d) How quickly the animal moves.
17. Many animals have evolved in such a way that it is difficult for them to hide from
predators. What is a primary explanation for this paradox?
a) Being visible to predators makes the animals liable to be
b) Being more visible to predators also makes them more visible to
c) Animals have to sacrifice mobility to remain hidden.
d) Animals have multiple predators with different sensory abilities.
18. Children who are born with cataracts never fully recover their sight if they are
removed after the age of 3. Cataracts that develop and are removed in adulthood
have no impact on this vision. This reflects the fact that the visual system has a
a) type of energy that it responds to.
b) peak developmental period.
c) sensitive period.
d) functional period.
19. The loss or deficit in one sense that leads to a heightened capacity in another
sense is related to the
a) sensory preference hypothesis.
b) plastic development principle.
c) compensatory plasticity hypothesis.
d) compensatory development principle.
Instructor’s Manual for Comparative Cognition: Multiple Choice Questions pg. 14
20. __________ are produced when physical stimuli activate receptors which send
neural signals to the rest of the CNS. ________________ is the interpretation of these
signals when the sensory information is processed, organized and filtered.
a) Sensations; Perception.
b) Sensory Illusions; Sensation.
c) Sensations; Attention.
d) Sensations; Sensory Coding
21. The ____________ threshold for detecting light that occurs under reduced
illumination is called ________________________.
a) raised; dark adaptation.
b) lowered; dark adaptation.
c) lowered; light adaptation.
d) raised; light adaptation.
22. The processing of separating and extracting meaningful information from the
abundance of sensory cues in the environment is known as
a) stimulus separation.
b) sensory processing.
c) extraction process.
d) stimulus filtering.
23. Which region of the thalamus relays information received from the eyes?
a) Lateral dorsal nucleus.
b) medial geniculate nucleus.
c) Dorsal geniculate nucleus.
d) Lateral geniculate nucleus.
24. Which cortical region might be responsible for assigning motivational values to
a) Orbitofrontal Cortex.
b) Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex.
c) Anterior Cingulate Cortex.
d) Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex.
Instructor’s Manual for Comparative Cognition: Multiple Choice Questions pg. 15
25. Which theory states that characteristics of a sensory stimulus are coded before
they get combined to a whole?
a) Top-down theory.
b) Elemental parts theory.
c) Feature integration theory.
d) Building block theory.
26. Which is the best definition of the term, “sign stimulus”?
a) An essential feature of a stimulus that releases a fixed activity
b) A stimulus that orients the individual in space.
c) A stimulus that elicits a quick cessation of behavior (like a stop sign).
d) Any stimulus that delivers information about the intentions of others.
27. The process through which sensory receptors translate physical events into
electrical signals is called
b) stimulus filtering.
c) optic flow.
d) an action potential.
28. The process of separating and extracting meaning information from the myriad
of stimuli in our environment is called
a) stimulus filtering.
b) sensory exploitation.
c) selective attention.
29. The Tinbergen study in which birds tended to artificial oversized eggs while
ignoring their own normal sized eggs is an example of
a) supernormal stimuli.
b) compensatory plasticity hypothesis.
c) greedy birds.
d) sensory bias.
Instructor’s Manual for Comparative Cognition: Multiple Choice Questions pg. 16
30. According to the principal of frequency coding, as the intensity of the physical
a) the frequency of action potentials increase.
b) the number of neurons firing increases.
c) more attention is paid to the stimulus.
d) information travels along the axon at a faster rate.