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Fundamentals of General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry, 7e (McMurry)

Chapter 2 Atoms and the Periodic Table

1) The smallest amount of an element that retains that element’s characteristics is the

A) atom.

B) electron.

C) molecule.

D) neutron.

E) proton.

Answer: A

Diff: 1

Section: 2.1

2) Another name for atomic mass unit (amu) is the

A) avogadro.

B) dalton.

C) Kekule

D) kelvin.

E) mendeleev.

Answer: B

Diff: 1

Section: 2.1

3) Which characteristics correctly describe a proton?

A) approximate mass 1 amu; charge +1; inside nucleus

B) approximate mass 5 Ã— 10-4 amu; charge -1; outside nucleus

C) approximate mass 5 Ã— 10-4 amu; charge +1; inside nucleus

D) approximate mass 1 amu; charge 0; inside nucleus

E) approximate mass 1 amu; charge +1; outside nucleus

Answer: A

Diff: 1

Section: 2.1

4) Which particle has a mass approximately equal to the mass of a proton?

A) atom

B) electron

C) neutron

D) nucleus

E) quark

Answer: C

Diff: 1

Section: 2.1

2

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5) Protons possess a ________ charge, and neutrons possess a ________ charge.

A) negative, negative

B) negative, positive

C) positive, negative

D) positive, zero

E) zero, positive

Answer: D

Diff: 1

Section: 2.1

6) Protons possess a ________ charge, and electrons possess a ________ charge.

A) negative, negative

B) negative, positive

C) positive, negative

D) positive, zero

E) zero, positive

Answer: C

Diff: 1

Section: 2.1

7) Which characteristics correctly describe a neutron?

A) approximate mass 1 amu; charge +1; inside nucleus

B) approximate mass 1 amu; charge -1; inside nucleus

C) approximate mass 1 amu; charge 0; inside nucleus

D) approximate mass 5 Ã— 10-4 amu; charge 0; inside nucleus

E) approximate mass 5 Ã— 10-4 amu; charge -1; outside nucleus

Answer: C

Diff: 1

Section: 2.1

8) Which characteristics correctly describe an electron?

A) approximate mass 1 amu; charge +1; inside nucleus

B) approximate mass 1 amu; charge -1; inside nucleus

C) approximate mass 1 amu; charge 0; inside nucleus

D) approximate mass 5 Ã— 10-4 amu; charge 0; inside nucleus

E) approximate mass 5 Ã— 10-4 amu; charge -1; outside nucleus

Answer: E

Diff: 1

Section: 2.1

3

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9) In a neutral atom the number of ________ is equal to the number of ________.

A) protons, electrons

B) protons, neutrons

C) neutrons, electrons

D) protons + electrons, neutrons

E) none of the above

Answer: A

Diff: 1

Section: 2.1

10) Which statement is incorrect according to modern atomic theory?

A) Some sugars have the formula C3.5H7O3.5.

B) An atom of 14N has the same approximate mass as an atom of 14C.

C) An atom of 14N behaves differently in chemical reactions than an atom of 14C.

D) An example of a chemical reaction is CaCO3 â†’ CaO + CO2.

E) C2H6 and C3H8 are both possible compounds of carbon and hydrogen.

Answer: A

Diff: 2

Section: 2.1

11) Where is most of the mass of an atom concentrated?

A) electrons

B) neutrons

C) nucleus

D) orbitals

E) protons

Answer: C

Diff: 2

Section: 2.1

12) An atom with Z = 26 and A = 58 contains ________ protons and ________ neutrons.

A) 26; 58

B) 58; 26

C) 26; 32

D) 32; 26

E) 26; 84

Answer: C

Diff: 1

Section: 2.2

4

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13) An atom with Z = 35 and A = 80 contains ________ protons, ________ electrons, and ________

neutrons.

A) 35; 35; 80

B) 80; 35; 35

C) 35; 35; 45

D) 45; 80; 45

E) 45; 80; 35

Answer: C

Diff: 1

Section: 2.2

14) An atom containing 29 protons, 29 electrons, and 34 neutrons has a mass number of

A) 5.

B) 29.

C) 34.

D) 58.

E) 63.

Answer: E

Diff: 1

Section: 2.2

15) The atomic number of an atom containing 29 protons, 29 electrons, and 34 neutrons is

A) 5.

B) 29.

C) 34.

D) 58.

E) 63.

Answer: B

Diff: 1

Section: 2.2

16) An atom containing 47 protons, 47 electrons, and 60 neutrons has a mass number of

A) 13.

B) 47.

C) 60.

D) 107.

E) 154.

Answer: D

Diff: 1

Section: 2.2

5

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17) The atomic number of an atom containing 47 protons, 47 electrons, and 60 neutrons is

A) 13.

B) 47.

C) 60.

D) 107.

E) 154.

Answer: B

Diff: 1

Section: 2.2

18) The value for Z for an atom containing 47 protons, 47 electrons, and 60 neutrons is

A) 13.

B) 47.

C) 60.

D) 107.

E) 154.

Answer: B

Diff: 1

Section: 2.2

19) The value of Z for the element 37Ar is ________.

A) 37

B) 39.945

C) 19

D) 21.945

E) 18

Answer: E

Diff: 1

Section: 2.2

20) For the isotope 71Ga, Z = ________ and A = ________.

A) 31; 40

B) 71; 31

C) 71; 40

D) 31; 71

E) 31; 69.723

Answer: D

Diff: 1

Section: 2.2

6

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21) The mass number of Br-81 is ________.

A) 81

B) 79.904

C) 79

D) 46

E) 35

Answer: A

Diff: 1

Section: 2.2

22) How many neutrons does an atom of Ti have?

A) 0

B) 22

C) 24

D) 46

E) 68

Answer: C

Diff: 2

Section: 2.2

23) Atoms of Cl contain ________ protons and ________ electrons.

A) 17; 17

B) 17; 18

C) 18; 17

D) 35; 18

E) 35; 17

Answer: A

Diff: 2

Section: 2.2

24) An atom with a mass number of 58 and with 32 neutrons will have ________ protons.

A) 16

B) 26

C) 32

D) 58

E) 90

Answer: B

Diff: 2

Section: 2.2

7

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25) The symbol of the element with 23 protons is

A) Mg.

B) Na.

C) V.

D) B.

E) none of the above

Answer: C

Diff: 2

Section: 2.2

26) An atom with Z = 31 and A = 69 contains ________ protons and ________ neutrons.

A) 31; 69

B) 69; 31

C) 31; 38

D) 38; 31

E) 31; 100

Answer: C

Diff: 2

Section: 2.2

27) The value of A for an atom containing 29 protons, 29 electrons, and 34 neutrons is

A) 5.

B) 29.

C) 34.

D) 58.

E) 63.

Answer: E

Diff: 2

Section: 2.2

28) The value of Z for an atom containing 29 protons, 29 electrons, and 34 neutrons, is

A) 5.

B) 29.

C) 34.

D) 58.

E) 63.

Answer: B

Diff: 2

Section: 2.2

8

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29) The value for A for an atom containing 47 protons, 47 electrons, and 60 neutrons is

A) 13.

B) 47.

C) 60.

D) 107.

E) 154.

Answer: D

Diff: 2

Section: 2.2

30) The number of neutrons in an atom is equal to:

A) atomic number – mass number

B) mass number – atomic number

C) the atomic number

D) the mass number

Answer: B

Diff: 2

Section: 2.2

31) An atom that contains 47 protons, 47 electrons, and 60 neutrons is an isotope of

A) Ag.

B) Al.

C) Nd.

D) Bh.

E) cannot be determined from the information given

Answer: A

Diff: 2

Section: 2.2

32) Atoms of Cl contain ________ protons and ________ neutrons.

A) 17; 17

B) 17; 18

C) 18; 17

D) 35; 18

E) 35; 17

Answer: B

Diff: 2

Section: 2.2

9

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33) An isotope with 15 protons and 17 neutrons will have which symbol?

A) Cl

B) Cl

C) P

D) P

E) P

Answer: C

Diff: 2

Section: 2.2

34) Consider the isotope Br. The atomic number is ________, and the mass number is ________.

A) 79; 35

B) 35; 79

C) 44; 35

D) 35; 44

E) 35; 114

Answer: B

Diff: 2

Section: 2.2

35) Cobalt is element 27. Cobalt-60 is used in the medical treatment of cancer. How many neutrons

and protons are contained in the nucleus of this isotope?

A) 27 neutrons, 33 protons

B) 33 neutrons, 27 protons

C) 27 neutrons, 27 protons

D) 33 neutrons, 33 protons

Answer: B

Diff: 2

Section: 2.2

36) Hydrogen exists as three isotopes. These isotopes differ by the number of ________ contained in

the atom.

A) neutrons

B) protons

C) electrons

D) charges

Answer: A

Diff: 2

Section: 2.3

10

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37) Adding one proton to the nucleus of an atom

A) converts it to an isotope of the same element.

B) increases its atomic mass by one unit, but does not change its atomic number.

C) increases its atomic number by one unit but does not change its atomic mass.

D) does not change either its atomic number or its atomic mass.

E) converts it to an atom of a different element.

Answer: E

Diff: 1

Section: 2.3

38) Adding one neutron to the nucleus of an atom

A) converts it to an isotope of the same element.

B) increases its atomic mass by two units, but does not change its atomic number.

C) increases its atomic number by one unit but does not change its atomic mass.

D) does not change either its atomic number or its atomic mass.

E) converts it to an atom of a different element.

Answer: A

Diff: 1

Section: 2.3

39) Naturally occurring iron contains 5.82% 54Fe, 91.66 % 56Fe, 2.19% 57Fe, and 0.33% 58Fe. The

respective atomic masses are 53.940 amu, 55.935 amu, 56.935 amu, and 57.933 amu. Calculate the

average atomic mass of iron.

Answer: 55.847 amu.

Diff: 2

Section: 2.3

40) An imaginary element Xq consists of two isotopes having masses of 100.0 amu and 102.0 amu. A

sample of Xq was found to contain 20.0% of the 100Xq isotope and 80.0% of the 102Xq. Calculate the

atomic weight of Xq.

A) 100.2 amu

B) 100.4 amu

C) 101.0 amu

D) 101.6 amu

E) 202.0 amu

Answer: D

Diff: 3

Section: 2.3

11

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41) An imaginary element Xz consists of two isotopes having masses of 100.0 amu and 102.0 amu. A

sample of Xz was found to contain 75.0% of the 100Xz isotope and 25.0% of the 102Xz. Calculate the

atomic weight of Xz.

A) 100.3 amu

B) 100.5 amu

C) 101.0 amu

D) 101.5 amu

E) 101.8 amu

Answer: B

Diff: 3

Section: 2.3

42) Which of the following represents a pair of isotopes?

A) 146C, 147N

B) 11H, 21H

C) 3216S, 3216S-2

D) O2, O3

Answer: B

Diff: 3

Section: 2.3

43) Which elements all belong in the same group?

A) C, N, O

B) Fe, Cu, Ni

C) B, Si, As

D) F, Cl, Br

E) Al, Ge, Sb

Answer: D

Diff: 1

Section: 2.4

44) Elements in the Periodic Table are arranged according to

A) alphabetical order.

B) atomic number.

C) atomic weight.

D) date of discovery.

E) number of neutrons.

Answer: B

Diff: 1

Section: 2.4

12

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45) Which element is most likely to have chemical properties similar to those of potassium (atomic

number 19)?

A) Ar (atomic number 18)

B) Ca (atomic number 20)

C) Sc (atomic number 21)

D) Rb (atomic number 37)

E) Sr (atomic number 38)

Answer: D

Diff: 2

Section: 2.4

46) Which element is not a semimetal?

A) Al

B) Si

C) Ge

D) As

E) none of the above

Answer: A

Diff: 2

Section: 2.4

47) Which group of elements contains only non-metals?

A) Mg, Ca, Sr

B) V, Cr, Mn

C) Cl, Ar, K

D) P, As, Se

E) C, S, I

Answer: E

Diff: 1

Section: 2.4

48) Which of the following is an alkali metal?

A) Al

B) Cl

C) He

D) Na

E) O

Answer: D

Diff: 1

Section: 2.5

13

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49) Magnesium is an example of a(an)

A) alkali metal.

B) alkaline earth.

C) halogen.

D) noble gas.

E) transition metal.

Answer: B

Diff: 1

Section: 2.5

50) Which of the following elements is a noble gas?

A) Cl

B) H

C) N

D) Ne

E) O

Answer: D

Diff: 1

Section: 2.5

51) Which group contains only metalloids?

A) Ni, Pd, Pt

B) Si, Ge, As

C) Ce, Pr, Nd

D) Kr, Xe, Rn

E) Po, Fr, Ac

Answer: B

Diff: 1

Section: 2.5

52) Which group contains only noble gases?

A) Ni, Pd, Pt

B) Si, Ge, As

C) Ce, Pr, Nd

D) Kr, Xe, Rn

E) Po, Fr, Ac

Answer: D

Diff: 1

Section: 2.5

53) Which column of the periodic table contains only nonmetals?

A) 4A

B) 5A

C) 6A

D) 7A

Answer: D

Diff: 1

Section: 2.5

14

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54) Which element is most likely to have chemical properties similar to those of bromine (atomic

number 35)?

A) S (atomic number 16)

B) Se (atomic number 34)

C) Kr (atomic number 36)

D) Te (atomic number 52)

E) I (atomic number 53)

Answer: E

Diff: 2

Section: 2.5

55) The maximum number of electrons in any orbital is ________.

A) 1

B) 2

C) 3

D) 4

E) 5

Answer: B

Diff: 1

Section: 2.6

56) How many electrons can occupy the shell having n = 2?

A) 2

B) 6

C) 8

D) 18

E) 32

Answer: C

Diff: 1

Section: 2.6

57) How many electrons can occupy the shell having n = 4?

A) 2

B) 8

C) 10

D) 18

E) 32

Answer: E

Diff: 1

Section: 2.6

15

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58) How many electrons can occupy the 4s subshell?

A) 1

B) 2

C) 6

D) 8

E) 10

Answer: B

Diff: 1

Section: 2.6

59) How many electrons can occupy the 4d subshell?

A) 1

B) 2

C) 6

D) 8

E) 10

Answer: E

Diff: 1

Section: 2.6

60) What is the maximum number of electrons that can occupy the 4f orbitals?

A) 2

B) 6

C) 8

D) 10

E) 14

Answer: E

Diff: 1

Section: 2.6

61) What is the maximum number of electrons that can occupy the 3d orbitals?

A) 2

B) 6

C) 8

D) 10

E) 14

Answer: D

Diff: 1

Section: 2.6

16

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62) At maximum, an f subshell can hold ________ electrons, a d subshell can hold ________ electrons

and a p subshell can hold ________ electrons.

A) 14, 10, 6

B) 2, 8, 18

C) 18, 8, 2

D) 2, 12, 21

E) 14, 6, 10

Answer: A

Diff: 1

Section: 2.6

63) The electron capacity of the third shell is ________.

A) 8

B) 10

C) 18

D) 24

E) 32

Answer: C

Diff: 2

Section: 2.6

64) Which of the following subshells consists of three orbitals?

A) 4s

B) 4p

C) 4d

D) 4f

E) none of the above

Answer: B

Diff: 2

Section: 2.6

65) Which of the following subshells consists of five orbitals?

A) 4s

B) 4p

C) 4d

D) 4f

E) none of the above

Answer: C

Diff: 2

Section: 2.6

17

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66) The shell having n = 2 contains ________ subshells, ________ orbitals, and up to ________

electrons.

A) 1, 2, 4

B) 2, 4, 8

C) 3, 6, 12

D) 4, 8, 16

E) none of the above

Answer: B

Diff: 3

Section: 2.6

67) The shell having n = 3 contains ________ subshells, ________ orbitals, and up to ________

electrons

A) 2, 4, 8

B) 3, 6, 12

C) 3, 6, 18

D) 3, 9, 18

E) 3, 12, 36

Answer: D

Diff: 3

Section: 2.6

68) Explain the term “quantized” as it applies to the energy of electrons. (Optional: Be sure to include an

example that has not been previously mentioned of something that is quantized.)

Answer: The term “quantized” means that their electrons can only have certain values of energy. This

leads to the idea of definite orbitals, instead of allowing the electrons to be at any location within the

atom. Examples can be things that are counted, but cannot be split into smaller parts. The price of a

candy bar is quantizedî€„it cannot be 39.446 centsî€„it is either 39 cents or 40 cents.

Diff: 2

Section: 2.6

69) What is the electron configuration of S?

A) 1s2 2s2 2p2

B) 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p2

C) 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p4

D) 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6

E) 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d1

Answer: C

Diff: 2

Section: 2.7

18

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70) What is the electron configuration of Mg?

A) 1s2 2s2 2p8

B) 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2

C) 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s1 3p3

D) 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d5

E) none of the above

Answer: B

Diff: 2

Section: 2.7

71) The element with the electron configuration 1s2 2s2 2p4 is ________.

A) Be

B) C

C) O

D) Si

E) S

Answer: C

Diff: 2

Section: 2.7

72) What is the electron configuration of Fe?

A) 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d8

B) 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d6

C) 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 4p6

D) 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2

E) 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d6

Answer: B

Diff: 2

Section: 2.7

73) The ground state electron configuration for nickel is

A) 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10.

B) 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 4s2 3d10 4p4.

C) 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 4d8.

D) 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d8.

Answer: D

Diff: 3

Section: 2.7

19

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74) The element with the electron configuration 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p5 is

A) fluorine.

B) chlorine.

C) carbon.

D) potassium.

E) sulfur.

Answer: B

Diff: 2

Section: 2.7

75) An element with the same number of valence electrons as the element with the electron

configuration 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p5 is

A) iodine.

B) oxygen.

C) argon.

D) potassium.

E) sulfur.

Answer: A

Diff: 2

Section: 2.7

76) The element with the electron configuration 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s1 is

A) Rb.

B) Ar.

C) Ca.

D) K.

E) Mg.

Answer: D

Diff: 2

Section: 2.7

77) The number of valence electrons in an element with electron configuration

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p4 is ________.

A) 2

B) 4

C) 6

D) 8

E) 16

Answer: C

Diff: 2

Section: 2.7

20

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78) The correct order for filling orbitals with electrons is ________.

A) 1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3d, 4s, 3p

B) 1s, 2s, 3s, 4s, 2p, 3p, 3d

C) 1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 4s, 3d

D) 1s, 2s, 3d, 2p, 3p, 3s, 4s

Answer: C

Diff: 2

Section: 2.7

79) The electron configuration for phosphorus is

A) 1s2 1p6 2s2 2p5.

B) 1s2 2s2 2p6 3p5.

C) 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s4 3p1.

D) 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p5.

E) 1s22s22p63s23p3.

Answer: E

Diff: 3

Section: 2.7

80) Which group contains only f-block elements?

A) Ni, Pd, Pt

B) Si, Ge, As

C) Ce, Pr, Nd

D) Kr, Xe, Rn

E) Po, Fr, Ac

Answer: C

Diff: 1

Section: 2.8

81) Which group contains only d-block elements?

A) Ni, Pd, Pt

B) Si, Ge, As

C) Ce, Pr, Nd

D) Kr, Xe, Rn

E) Po, Fr, Ac

Answer: A

Diff: 1

Section: 2.8

82) Which group contains only p-block elements?

A) N, S, Br

B) Mn, Cu, Ag

C) K, Mg, Al

D) Ce, Pr, Nd

Answer: A

Diff: 1

Section: 2.8

21

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83) Transition metals can also be called

A) s-block elements.

B) p-block elements.

C) d-block elements.

D) f-block elements.

E) precious metals.

Answer: C

Diff: 1

Section: 2.8

84) The number of valence electrons in a main group element is given by ________.

A) the element’s atomic number

B) the element’s atomic weight

C) the element’s group number

D) none of the above

Answer: C

Diff: 1

Section: 2.8

85) Valence electrons in the main group elements are contained in which type(s) of orbitals?

A) s

B) p

C) s and p

D) d

Answer: C

Diff: 1

Section: 2.8

86) How many electrons are there in the valence shell of a nitrogen atom?

A) 0

B) 2

C) 3

D) 5

E) 7

Answer: D

Diff: 2

Section: 2.8

87) An s-block element in the 5th Period is

A) Y.

B) As.

C) Sr.

D) Mo.

E) Ag.

Answer: C

Diff: 2

Section: 2.8

22

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88) The element which has four valence electrons is ________.

A) H

B) Na

C) Mg

D) Si

E) S

Answer: D

Diff: 2

Section: 2.8

89) An element with 2 valence electrons is ________.

A) Se

B) Si

C) Ca

D) Rb

Answer: C

Diff: 2

Section: 2.8

90) In terms of atomic structure, the common characteristic of elements in the same group is

A) number of electrons.

B) number of electrons in the outermost shell.

C) number of neutrons.

D) number of protons.

E) none of the above

Answer: B

Diff: 3

Section: 2.8

91) Explain how the term “valence electrons” is related to electron configurations. Use the elements in

group VI, Periods, 3, 4, and 5, as examples.

Answer: The electron configuration allows us to determine the number of valence electrons by

identifying the orbitals in the outermost shell so their electrons can be counted. The orbitals in the

outermost shell are all those with the largest coefficient. For example, the electron configuration of S is

1s22s22p63s23p4. The outermost orbitals, which have a coefficient of 3, contain six electrons.

Therefore sulfur has six valence electrons. For Se, the electron configuration is [Ar]4s23d104p4, and the

orbitals with the largest coefficient (4) contain six electrons. Selenium has six valence electrons.

Likewise, for Te, the electron configuration is [Kr] 5s24d105p4, and the orbitals with the largest

coefficient (5) contain a total of six electrons, the valence electrons.

Diff: 3

Section: 2.8