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1. Which of the following statements best describes the recommended dietary allowances (RDA)?
a. They are average nutrient intake goals that meet the needs of nearly all healthy people.
b. They are established when scientific data is insufficient.
c. They are updated annually with new intake values to be followed.
d. They are the minimum requirements needed daily for each nutrient.
ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: Page 32 BLM: Remember
2. Which of the following standards establishes population-wide average requirements used by nutrition
a. Daily Values (DV)
b. Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA)
c. Recommended Daily Allowances (RDA)
d. Estimated Average Requirements (EAR)
ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: Page 32 BLM: Remember
3. Which of the following statements about the dietary reference intakes (DRI) is the most accurate?
a. They are for healthy individuals.
b. They are based on review of available testimonials.
c. They are published by a committee composed of dietitians.
d. They are maximum requirements, not recommendations.
ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: Page 32 BLM: Remember
4. Which of the following statements about Daily Values (DV) is the most accurate?
a. They are based on nutrient recommendations for a 3,000-Calorie diet.
b. They are the best way to compare the nutritional content of packaged foods.
c. They are required on Canadian food labels and restaurant menus.
d. They are useful as nutrient intake goals for all adults.
ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: Page 32 BLM: Remember
5. As a result of the basic assumptions made by the dietary reference intakes (DRI) committee, the DRI
recommendations would apply to which of the following individuals?
a. Cindy, a 21-year-old university student
b. Harry, a 35-year-old businessman with Type 1 diabetes
c. Robert, a 20-year-old with cystic fibrosis
d. Joann, a 35-year-old woman who smokes and is a vegetarian
ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: Page 32 BLM: Higher order
6. Why would you suggest that an adult athlete become familiar with tolerable upper intake levels (UL)
prior to taking nutritional supplements?
a. to avoid using supplements
b. to prevent illness from nutrient toxicity
c. to maximize athletic performance
d. to prevent deficiencies in specific nutrients important for athletes
ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: Page 32 BLM: Higher order7. What does the absence of a tolerable upper intake level (UL) for a specific nutrient indicate?
a. All food sources contain acceptable levels of the nutrient.
b. Insufficient data exist to establish a value for the nutrient.
c. Caution is only required when consuming supplements of the nutrient.
d. It is safe to consume in the nutrient in any amount.
ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: Page 33 BLM: Remember
8. According to the dietary reference intakes (DRI) committee, a diet should contain what percentage of
its Calories from carbohydrate?
ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: Page 33 BLM: Remember
9. What is the term used for studies that measure the body’s intake and excretion of a nutrient to find out
how much intake is required to balance excretion?
a. intake study
b. excretion study
c. balance study
d. requirement study
ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: Page 35 BLM: Remember
10. Which of the following statements best describes Estimated Energy Requirements (EER)?
a. It provides a generous amount of Calories for healthy individuals to consume each day.
b. The UL for energy is set at 2, 000 Calories per day.
c. Small amounts of excessive energy consumed daily are of little significance to the body.
d. The value is predicted to maintain body weight for healthy adults.
ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: Page 36 BLM: Remember
11. The appropriate Daily Values for fat, saturated, and trans fatty acids, carbohydrates, fibre, sodium, and
potassium are based on the Institute of Medicine Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) report for a diet of
how many kilocalories?
ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: Page 36 BLM: Remember
12. The %DV for calcium on food labels in Canada is 1,100 mg. One cup (250 mL) of 2% milk contains
about 300 mg of calcium. What is the %DV for this one cup of milk?
ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: Page 36 BLM: Higher order
13. According to The Canadian Physical Activity Guidelines for Adults—18–64 years, how much exercise
is recommended for adults to maintain a healthy body?
a. 20 minutes every day
b. 30 minutes alternating days
c. 60 minutes a day
d. 150 minutes weekly
ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: Page 37 BLM: Remember
14. Following Canada’s Food Guide is intended to reduce your risk for which chronic disease?
b. kidney stones
ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: Page 39 BLM: Remember
15. Which of the following recommendations does Canada’s Food Guide make with regard to oils and
a. Do not consume butter, lard, or shortening.
b. Include at least 3 to 4 Tbsp (45 to 60 mL) daily.
c. Choose soft margarines that are low in saturated fats and trans fats.
d. Use vegetable oils such as coconut, olive, and palm kernel.
ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: Page 40 BLM: Remember
16. According to Canada’s Food Guide, which of the following food items is considered one food guide
a. 1 egg
b. 15 mL peanut butter
c. 30 g cooked fish
d. 175 mL cooked legumes
ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: Page 40 BLM: Higher order
17. Which of the following nutrient supplements does Canada’s Food Guide recommend daily for healthy
adults over the age of 50 years?
b. folic acid
c. vitamin D
ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: Page 42 BLM: Remember
18. Which of the following recommendations for pregnant women does the most recent Canada’s Food
a. They should consume 10 glasses of water every day.
b. They should take a daily Vitamin B6 supplement.
c. They should take a daily Vitamin B12 supplement.
d. They should take a daily folic acid supplement.
ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: Page 42 BLM: Remember
19. Which of the following is a key nutrient or other food component typically found in vegetables and
a. vitamin B12
b. trans fats
ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: Page 45 BLM: Remember
20. According to Canada’s Food Guide, a daily serving of dark green vegetables is recommended in order
to meet the intake requirements for which of the following nutrients?
a. vitamin C
b. vitamin A
ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: Page 45 BLM: Higher order
21. What is the name given to the type of diet planning tool that sorts foods into groups based on their
a. exchange system
b. food group plan
c. controlled Calorie allowance
d. discretionary allowance pattern
ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: Page 45 BLM: Remember
22. Which of the following statements about the discretionary Calorie allowance is true?
a. The added fat absorbed by the batter in fried chicken contributes to discretionary Calories.
b. It must be spent on nutrient-dense foods composed primarily of water.
c. The more physical activity completed the fewer discretionary Calories available.
d. It should be consumed even if the person is trying to lose weight.
ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: Page 46 BLM: Higher order
23. When carbohydrate counting, how many grams of carbohydrate is equivalent to one carbohydrate
serving in accordance with The Canadian Diabetes Association meal planning guide approach?
ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: Page 53 BLM: Higher order
24. Which of the following classes of lipids must be listed on food labels in Canada?
a. monounsaturated fat
b. omega-3 fats
d. polyunsaturated fat
ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: Page 55 BLM: Remember
25. What number of core food components must be listed on the Nutrition Facts panel on a food label in
ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: Page 55 BLM: Remember
26. You are speaking to a group of consumers about ways to use food labels to choose healthy foods in the
grocery store. Which of the following points would you emphasize during your presentation?
a. understanding that the %DV are based on a 3,000-Calorie diet
b. using the grams on the labels to calculate percentages for Daily Values
c. comparing the number of food additives in a product
d. understanding the descriptor terms used on food labels
ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: Page 57 BLM: Higher order
27. How many grams of fibre must a food contain for it to be considered a “very high source” of fibre?
a. 2 grams or more
b. 4 grams or more
c. 6 grams or more
d. 8 grams or more
ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: Page 58 BLM: Remember
28. A diet-related health claim on a food label is acceptable for which of the following health conditions?
b. food allergy
c. high blood pressure
d. celiac disease
ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: Page 59 BLM: Remember
29. Which of the following nutrients should be limited to 5% or less of the %DV on a food label?
ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: Page 59 BLM: Higher order
30. What is the name for the type of fat in butter, milk, and other dairy products that has shown some
healthful biological activity in animal studies?
a. omega 12 fatty acid
b. essential fatty acid
c. miso fatty acid
d. conjugated linoleic acid
ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: Page 63 BLM: Remember
31. What is the name of the phytochemical contained in black-eyed peas, grapes, lentils, and wine that
may inhibit carcinogen activation and cancer promotion?
a. organosulfur compounds
d. phytic acid
ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: Page 65 BLM: Remember
32. Which of the following phytochemicals is contained in whole grains, fruits, vegetables, herbs, spices,
teas, and red wine?
ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: Page 66 BLM: Remember
33. What phytochemical has been attributed to lower rates of osteoporosis and heart disease in Asian
people living in Asia?
ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: Page 66-67 BLM: Remember
34. Which of the following foods is a source of lycopene?
d. red wine
ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: Page 68 BLM: Higher order
35. What is the name of the compound contained in flaxseed that is converted into biologically active
phytoestrogens by bacteria in the human intestine?
ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: Page 68 BLM: Remember
36. Which of the following sources of phytochemicals is the best and safest for consumers?
b. herbal remedies
c. whole foods
d. organic foods
ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: Page 69 BLM: Remember
37. Which of the following is the name for a fermented liquid yogurt beverage?
ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: Page 70 BLM: Remember
1. Recommendations for vitamins and minerals, carbohydrates, fibre, lipids, proteins, and energy have
been published by the dietary reference intakes (DRI) committee.
ANS: T PTS: 1 REF: Page 31
2. The absence of a tolerable upper intake level (UL) for a nutrient implies that it is safe to consume in
ANS: F PTS: 1 REF: Page 33
3. Consuming 100% of the dietary reference intake (DRI) for every nutrient ensures adequate intake.
ANS: T PTS: 1 REF: Page 34
4. The primary difference between recommendations for nutrient intakes and values set for energy intake
is that the value for energy intake is generous.
ANS: F PTS: 1 REF: Page 36
5. Canada’s Food Guide is intended for healthy people aged 2 years and older.
ANS: T PTS: 1 REF: Page 39
6. The ingredient list on packaged foods must be listed in ascending order by weight.
ANS: F PTS: 1 REF: Page 57
1. Describe how the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) Committee establishes DRI values.
The first step will be to find out how much of each identified nutrient is required for various healthy
individuals. Different individuals will have different requirements even though they may be of the
same age or gender. The most valid research data is selected to support the DRI values. To set the
value, the committee must decide what intake to recommend for all healthy people. The final decision
is to set the value high enough so that 97 to 98 percent of the population will be covered, but not so
high as to be excessive. DRI values are updated periodically in light of new knowledge.
PTS: 1 REF: Page 34–35
2. Explain how the Estimated Energy Requirements (EER) are established.
Estimated Energy Requirements (EER), are set at the average energy intake level predicted to maintain
body weight for an individual of a particular age, gender, height, weight, and physical activity level
consistent with good health. The values are not generous; they reflect a balancing act to consume
enough food to support health and life but not too much energy so as to cause unhealthy weight gain
that can lead to associated diseases.
PTS: 1 REF: Page 36
3. Describe characteristics of the Daily Values listed on food labels and how they should be used for
The percent Daily Values (%DV) reflect the needs of an average person – someone eating 2,000 to
2,500 Calories daily. The purpose of having a %DV is to show whether the food has a lot or a little of
a nutrient in a stated amount of food. The Daily Values are ideal for allowing comparisons among
packaged foods; they are much less useful as nutrient intake goals for individuals.
PTS: 1 REF: Page 36
4. List the food groups in Canada’s Food Guide and give an example of a nutrient-dense food from each
Vegetables and Fruit: broccoliGrains: whole wheat breadMilk and Alternatives: yogurtMeat and
Alternatives: skinless chicken breast
PTS: 1 REF: Page 39-41 | 46
5. Explain the concept of the discretionary Calorie allowance, and describe ways this allowance may be
The discretionary Calorie allowance is the balance of Calories remaining in a person’s daily energy
needs after accounting for the number of Calories needed to meet nutrient intakes through
consumption of nutrient-dense foods. A person with a discretionary Calorie allowance to spend may
choose to consume the following, within the limits of the allowance:1. Extra servings of the same
nutrient-dense foods that make up the base of the diet.2. Fats from two sources.3. Added sugars,
such as jams, colas, and honey.4. Alcohol, within limits.5. Omit the discretionary Calories from the
diet. This is a safe strategy because discretionary Calories are not essential for delivering needed
nutrients to the diet.
PTS: 1 REF: Page 45–46
6. Explain the difference between nutrient content descriptors and diet-related health claims allowed on
food labels in Canada.
Nutrient content descriptors are approved wording that may be use to describe the nutrient values of
foods. Examples include claims that a food is high in, low in, or free of a specific constituent.
Diet-related health claims are also approved for use in Canada. However, these are claims that link
food constituents with specific disease states that meet criteria established by Health Canada.
PTS: 1 REF: Page 57-59
7. Defend the statement that foods, not supplements, are the best and safest source of phytochemicals.
A moderate approach to the use of phytochemicals is warranted. People who eat the recommended
amounts of a variety of vegetables and fruit may cut their risk of many diseases by as much as half.
Replacing some meat with soy foods or other legumes may also lower heart disease and cancer risks.
In the context of a healthy diet, foods are time-tested for safety, posing virtually no risk of toxic levels
of nutrients or phytochemicals. Beneficial constituents are widespread among foods. In most cases, the
health benefits observed with intakes of certain foods cannot be ascribed to individual phytochemicals
nor purified supplements of these phytochemicals. Avoid singling out any one phytochemical for its
magical health effect. Instead, take a no-nonsense approach where your health is concerned: choose a
wide variety of whole grains, legumes, fruit and vegetables in the context of an adequate, balanced,
and varied diet, and receive all of the