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2: Homeostasis and Adaptive Responses to Stressors
1. Stress can be defined as a threat to homeostasis.
2. Most of the hormones released with stress serve to increase blood glucose.
3. Cortisol is a stress hormone released from the adrenal medulla.
4. Cortisol decreases the inflammatory response.
5. Selye called the “fight-or-flight” response an “alarm reaction” to stress.
6. A coping method is functional if it reduces emotional pain.
7. Both positive and negative life events can produce stress.
8. Stress rarely causes long-term physiologic disorders.
9. High-stress situations are always physiologically harmful.
10. Norepinephrine and epinephrine are the primary mediators of the alarm phase of the stress
1. Indicators that an individual is experiencing stress include all of the following except
c. peripheral vasoconstriction.
d. pupil constriction.
2. Which of the following normally is not secreted in response to stress?
3. Allostatic adaptation in response to stress may be considered successful when
a. stress hormones are no longer secreted.
b. heart rate falls below 100 beats/min.
c. homeostasis is restored.
d. the stress is no longer present.
4. Selye’s three phases of the stress response include all of the following except
5. Many of the responses to stress are attributed to activation of the sympathetic nervous
system and are mediated by
6. Antidiuretic hormone secretion may increase during physiologic stress leading to an
a. blood sugar.
b. urine output.
c. serum sodium.
d. body fluid volume.
7. The effects of excessive cortisol production include
a. immune suppression.
d. inflammatory reactions.
8. All of the following stress-induced hormones increase blood glucose except
a. antidiuretic hormone.
c. growth hormone.
9. In stressful circumstances, the brain releases _____, which may improve mood, reduce pain,
and induce sleep.
10. The process of change in an individual in response to altered conditions is called