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1. Using material objects helps to give the personal essay a specific
focus and tightens the connection between writer and essay.
2. By describing his father’s appearance and character, the reader
becomes more connected to this man who means so much to him.
As a result, the reader can better appreciate how meaningful the
jersey is and how meaningful Smith’s dad is to him.
3. This list could be more specific if Smith named the teams the bats
were from or the players who signed the baseball and whose mitts
were there. He could also be more descriptive about the state of the
1. These words suggest that people most frequently write essays about
famous characters, people who are heroes to a larger audience.
2. They suggest that as a genre the personal essay is not strictly
prescribed; it allows a writer to make his/her own decisions about
what is meaningful. These words could confuse the reader about the
essay’s focus because they offer up two ways to understand the
“unsung hero” that Welch will discuss.
3. It has four words. It’s a simple sentence. Because it is short and to
the point, it emphasizes Miss Tobias’ condition. This sentence makes
the meaning deeper, the purpose more relevant, and the effect overall
1. For answer “c,” I would suggest that she rephrase the question in her
answer so that she answers it more directly. Her answer isn’t quite
what the question seeks.
2. She invites the instructor to peek into her mind when she asks the
questions in answer “b.”
3. I would ask that question when she says in answer “a,” “You do not
need to know why things happen and things do not have to be right
or wrong.” By keeping the spirit of questioning alive, the writer
allows him or herself to take a second look, leaving room for more
1. In a response paper, you are responding directly to what the reading
says but in a more objective manner; however, in a journal entry, you
are sharing your thoughts (specifically personal) that come about as a
result of what you have read.
2. Ulrich’s entry discusses more than one event in her life. If she were
to write a composition after reflecting on what she’s written, the
process may help her see if there is a common theme running through
each anecdote that serves as the foundation of her trials and
3. She has a defined organizational structure—intro, body,
conclusion—and she includes a bit of information about Bray’s
1. Are non-immigrants unsympathetic because they haven’t taken the
time to walk in immigrant’s shoes? Can you ever really know where
someone else, with an experience very different to yours, is coming
2. Johnson uses hypothetical reasoning when she supposes that many
Hispanic people will someday need her help as a nurse. Johnson’s
reasoning serves to reveal her opinion, her practical connection to
what she has read.
3. By using “I”, Julie really personalizes the conclusions she has come
to and, in a way, invites her readers to do the same.
1. Smith is reacting to Michael Collins’ performances in the Sophomore
Literary Festival—one was a workshop and one was a reading. These
“texts” are similar to what a college student encounters because some
classes (such as English Composition or creative writing classes) will
include workshop portions. In addition, Collins’ reading is very
different because unless a guest speaker is in class, college classes
don’t typically involve the performance of a text through reading
(writing workshops being exceptions).
2. Smith captures a sense of verisimilitude when he begins to describe
Collins’ reading of “The End of the World.” He does a good job
because he includes a lot of description of the audience’s reactions.
3. Smith describes the emotional aura when he describes the audience’s
reaction to Collins’ reading and when he says about the workshop,
“The morning’s affair took on the seriousness of a classroom.” This
is appropriate because it reveals Smith’s ability to capture the
essence of the “text.”
1. Rimelspach’s transition is seamless because her thesis is a response
to the introduction before it.
2. A writer should probably develop no fewer than three arguments; any
fewer than three makes it seem as if the overarching argument isn’t
very well developed.
3. You qualify an argument by presenting sufficient and logical
evidence to support your argument. It is important to know how to
make that “move” because without that “move” the argument’s
validity is unknown.
1. Yes, it is acceptable because Mulvaney establishes a foundation for
his argument through these two paragraphs. No, he doesn’t need to
spend all this space establishing a foundation for his argument; he
could do so in the first paragraph alone.
2. Mulvaney restates his thesis when he says, “Hemp’s benefits are
clearly overwhelming.” Restating the thesis further emphasizes the
argument’s significance and adds to its persuasive power. Another
reason why a writer may restate the thesis is simply to remind the
reader especially if the text is long.
3. No, it doesn’t always require documentation of sources because it
doesn’t always require research. A writer can also rely on his or her
prior knowledge of the subject matter.
1. Gerspacher is very effective because he compares Liszt to James
Joyce and then to Beethoven, two great men in their individual fields.
This places the recording on a higher level and makes the reader
interested in now hearing how the performer lives up to that standard.
2. He assumes that his audience knows the names of composers but not
necessarily musical terms. After musical terms such as “Lento a
capriccio,” Gerspacher provides a definition—“Slow and
3. He wants his audience to listen to the recording because he praises
Roberto Szidon’s performance so much.
1. Lee focuses on the hypothesis, a summary of the study, details of the
test results, and conclusions. By doing this, she includes just what the
reader needs to know.
2. There aren’t any transitions. As a genre, the review is not meant to be
very formal in structure.
3. No, it wouldn’t be acceptable in many academic disciplines because
they will require a less subjective analysis; the focus will be
primarily on the work being reviewed and it’s significance, perhaps,
in relation to other works of its kind in its field.
1. It is similar because it is thesis-driven; it is different because it uses
textual support for claims made, not secondary research.
2. Yes, I can understand this analysis because of the textual evidence
provided. One specific example is on page 107 where Weicher
intertwines lines of the poem as a way to summarize the poem. In
addition, her use of transitions helps the reader follow her train of
3. She is particularly strong in her critique of how Samson’s blindness
leads to “mental clarity and freedom of thought.” Weicher points to
the seeing characters as examples of those blind to the truth—by
pointing this out, she sets up standards against which Samson can be
1. Weicher is very effective in her use of lines from the poem and in her
organization. Her argument could have been stronger with the use of
secondary material. Sandberg is strong in his use of both primary and
secondary sources. He could have strengthened his argument by
doing a closer comparison of novels.
2. It shows that someone else, who has greater credibility, has your
ideas. But, if sources aren’t used properly they can prove that your
argument is unoriginal and therefore not worthy of argument.
3. He uses criticism to add to his point and to show the criticism’s
shortcomings. I think it’s best just to use them as support unless you
are pointing out a weakness in order to show the strength in your
argument. Multiple strategies can be valuable because the writer’s
competence will be showcased.
1. MacDonald succeeds in providing background information and the
main points. In addition, he provides some insights into the tone and
“feel” of the article, primarily through the use of a few, short direct
2. Direct students to locate the original article. Analysis of the
thoroughness will no doubt vary, but will promote an interesting
3. To contextualize the text and/or relate it to a broader issue,
identifying the overall focus of the text—to summarize any
conclusion and/or recommendation offered in the text
1. Kraley’s audience seems to be teachers of Shakespeare—she names
her audience at the end of the introductory paragraph.
2. There are fairly consistent references to specific audiences and to the
main idea of the individual texts and to the purpose of the annotated
bibliography as a whole.
3. She compares and contrasts the usefulness of the sources to give the
reader an idea of how the sources relate and to provide standards
against which to judge other sources.
1. The Literature Review and Findings sections make this primarily an
2. She could insert words that relate specifically to her topic.
3. Red-tape, ecosystem, soft-release, hard release
1. I would recommend that Trzaska be more specific about the subject
of the report.
2. Trzaska succeeds very well, especially in the Analysis section. She
could give examples of nonprofit positions.
3. They provide an organized layout of brief information.
1. Yes, it is standard.
2. It sounds more personal and therefore is more subjective. Dimova’s
sounds more scientific because of the third-person usage and the
distance (objectivity) that results.
3. It helps the reader understand the problems that occur in
experiments—that they are not always perfect.
1. Signaling pathways, gibberellic acids, radicles
2. She uses passive voice, which creates a more objective sounding
3. She could have probably spent time in the discussion section
analyzing aspects of the tables and graphs.
1. He is effective because he sets up the main point by saying “the
purpose of . . .”
2. He gives the full wording before he uses the abbreviation the first
3. They make it easier to understand the methodological steps.
1. It’s more specific in this paper. Nelson refers to literature throughout
his theoretical analysis whereas Diviak reviews everything in the
2. Baseline measure, congruent/noncongruent
3. She summarizes the work of other researchers and shows how her
1. It is a critique of the library’s ability to meet the needs of the
2. They engage the readers more directly, allowing them to feel as
though they were present at the site.
3. She moves from one part of the library to another, clearly articulating
the physical space that she is in.
1. There are differences in terminology between the fields of
chemistry and psychology. The psychology Literature review
seems to sketch out a more detailed “argument” by way of
justification for the study. There are more studies cited in the
psychology paper with specific references to the researchers and
the dates the studies were performed.
2. It moves from physical descriptions to descriptions of the nature of
the school’s program. She doesn’t use physical space as reference
3. The final two sentences address the possible implications for
1. Understanding the conditions under which people are able to create
their own organization
2. She says that she is a student and teacher and points to various
aspects of her experience as such.
3. Not necessarily—speculation and conjecture are effective in helping
the reader analyze the study
1. No, but oftentimes it is more beneficial to the reader.
2. The second is more observational.
3. Yes, it provides a thesis at the beginning and the supports it with
1. The connection between the research project and each piece of
literature is clearly established as soon as each piece is introduced.
2. It contextualizes Sheild’s project. It also provides background for the
less informed reader and, finally, it offers justification for Sheild’s
3. In the humanities, as opposed to the sciences, there is frequently less
emphasis on “method” because of a shared understanding of method
as reading and researching primary texts. However, in some of the
humanities, there is an increasing emphasis on method in terms of the
type of critical lens employed, such as a feminist perspective, a
cultural studies perspective, and so forth.
1. It is pretty consistently focused upon persuading its audience.
2. So that Mattel knows they won’t be alone; in other words, it
promotes a sense of healthy competition. Large corporations wish
to “keep up” with the images of their competitors. It also gives the
project more credibility as an already accepted worthy cause.
3. Topic headings, sub-headings, tables
1. The tone is very personal but professional. In this text the tone is
more pragmatic and a bit less scholarly, given the potential range of
2. Behavior modification, collaborative learning, classroom
compliance, and so forth are terms used by the author reflecting his
scholarly field. They help establish the author’s credibility for the
reader. He is knowledgeable of the field.
3. Throughout, to support various ideas Schiappa brings up to show
what resource will help her complete a specific task.
1. Headings and numbers are provided where appropriate. Other nurses,
doctors, therapists, and technicians may view this report. All these
people need basic, accurate information quickly to determine
2. The subheadings organize the information and allow for a quick read
of the necessary sections, depending upon the task and perspective of
a particular caregiver.
3. Sometimes the connection is made only by the article’s
bibliographical information. At other points, the connection is made
by statements such as, “According to X study” as a means of
establishing a justification for the proposed course of action.
1. The literature review is more of a narrative with greater detail
provided. It also provides more of an argument than these evaluations
2. They require frequent updating, and if they aren’t updated, their
information may not be reliable.
3. Because it is not refereed, not everything is trustworthy.
1. He was aiming to provide a quick source of useful, but not highly
technical, information. It is a user-friendly cursory guide.
2. More details would provide a more in-depth analysis. The brief
remarks merely serve as a “beginning” for an evaluation of each site.
3. Feldman is hoping that the reader will check out each site. The links
are in bold, and the critique list after each suggests that a reader
should see how each fairs in his or her own mind.