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The ideal time to a tree is in the fall. The warm days and cool of
autumn allow a tree’s root system to develop and become established. The young tree will mature further during the spring season before facing the heat of .
EXERCISE 2-1 Understanding Definition Context Clues
Directions: Using the definition clues in each sentence, select the choice that
best defines each boldfaced word.
1. There was a consensus, or unified opinion, among the students
that the exam was difficult.
a. dispute c. change
b. unified opinion d. question
2. The continents and ocean basins of the Earth’s crust are separated
from the Earth’s liquid core by the mantle—1,800 miles of a solid
layer of rock.
a. crust c. ocean basins
b. liquid core d. solid layer of rock
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3. Jane Goodall has spent many years of her life observing the
behavior of animals in their natural settings, a field of study
known as ethology.
a. the behavior of animals
b. the study of animals in their natural environment
c. the study of the environment
d. the observation of behavior
4. The play satirized several famous political figures, using wit and
sarcasm to expose their folly.
a. admired c. defeated
b. ignored d. ridiculed
5. Philippe was upset that he had lost the folder containing his
dossier, which included his college transcripts, résumé, and
letters of recommendation.
a. wallet c. license
b. bank statement d. collection of papers
6. In 1898, the Spanish ceded, or surrendered possession of, both
Guam and Puerto Rico to the United States.
a. maintained c. gave up
b. purchased d. battled
7. The professor often used paradigms, or models, to illustrate difficult concepts.
a. typical examples c. brief reviews
b. mastery tests d. illustrated reports
8. People who practice totemism—the worship of plants, animals,
or objects as gods—usually select for worship objects that are
important to the community.
a. the worship of community
b. the worship of gods
c. the worship of plants, animals, or objects
d. the worship of no gods
9. In police investigations, interrogation (examination by questioning) is vital, but it can be psychologically and emotionally draining to the person being questioned.
a. writing answers c. interfering
b. asking questions d. complaining
2 Answer Key
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10. The mean—the mathematical average of a set of numbers—will
determine whether grades will be based on a curve.
a. the highest number in a set
b. the lowest number in a set
c. the average of a set of numbers
d. the total of a set of numbers
EXERCISE 2-2 Understanding Synonym Context Clues
Directions: Using the synonym clues in each sentence, select the choice that best
defines each boldfaced word.
1. The mayor’s assistant was accused of malfeasance, although he
denied any wrongdoing.
a. denial c. motivation
b. misconduct d. authority
2. The words of the president seemed to galvanize the American
troops, who cheered enthusiastically throughout the speech.
a. excite c. announce
b. anger d. discourage
3. Mia Hamm’s superior ability and prowess on the soccer field
have inspired many girls to become athletes.
a. meekness c. exceptional skill
b. training d. sound advice
4. Many gardeners improve the quality of their soil by amending it
with organic compost.
a. turning c. removing
b. spoiling d. enriching
5. Eliminating salt from the diet is a prudent, sensible decision for
people with high blood pressure.
a. thoughtless c. unnecessary
b. advisable d. economical
6. The cadence, or rhythm, of the Dixieland band had many people
tapping their feet along with the music.
a. appearance of the band c. beat of the music
b. melody d. noise
Answer Key 3
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7. Edgar Allan Poe is best known for his macabre short stories and
poems. His eerie tale, “The Fall of the House of Usher,” was
made into a horror movie starring Vincent Price.
a. humorous c. entertaining
b. magical d. frightening
8. While she was out of the country, Greta authorized me to act as
her proxy, or agent, in matters having to do with her business
and her personal bank accounts.
a. representative c. partner
b. adviser d. accountant
9. The arsenal of a baseball pitcher ideally includes several different
kinds of pitches. From this supply of pitches, he or she needs to
have at least one that can fool the batter.
a. collection c. attitude
b. performance d. profession
10. A coalition of neighborhood representatives formed to fight a
proposed highway through the area. The group also had the
support of several local businesses.
a. report or summary c. alliance or partnership
b. business or enterprise d. part or category
EXERCISE 2-3 Understanding Example Context Clues
Directions: Using the example clues in each sentence, select the choice that best
defines each boldfaced word.
1. Some debilities of old age, including loss of hearing, poor
eyesight, and diseases such as arthritis, can be treated
a. deafness c. weaknesses
b. medical treatments d. notices
2. The actor has a wide repertoire, including Shakespearean drama,
Broadway plays, and classical theater.
a. budget for artistic performances
b. stock of material that can be performed
c. requirements that must be fulfilled
d. ability to both sing and dance
4 Answer Key
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3. Many people have turned to herbal remedies, such as flaxseed,
yarrow, and St. John’s wort, to treat a variety of health conditions.
a. foods c. challenges
b. payments d. medicines
4. Children between the ages of three and six occasionally
experience some form of parasomnia—sleepwalking, night
terrors, or bed-wetting.
a. sleep disorder c. anger
b. excitement d. daydreaming
5. Certain environmental hazards—including asbestos, arsenic, and
tar—are considered carcinogens; people exposed to these materials are at risk for cancer.
a. unknown benefits c. cancer-causing substances
b. possible pollutants d. illegal substances
6. The stray dog was submissive—crouching, flattening its ears,
and avoiding eye contact.
a. wild and excitable c. angry and aggressive
b. yielding and meek d. active and alert
7. To substantiate his theory, Watson offered experimental
evidence, case study reports, testimony of patients, and a log of
a. revise c. withdraw
b. uncover d. prove
8. Companies often use nonmonetary rewards to motivate their
employees. For example, new job titles, compensatory time,
privileges, and awards can be effective motivational tools.
a. private c. not required
b. not involving money d. natural and realistic
9. Many wills include at least one codicil, which is appended to the
original will, such as an instruction about the disbursement of
assets to stepchildren.
a. additional part c. fee
b. error d. request
10. Unconditioned responses, including heartbeat, blinking, and
breathing, occur naturally in all humans.
a. traumas c. involuntary actions
b. medical terms d. learned skills
Answer Key 5
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EXERCISE 2-4 Understanding Contrast Context Clues
Directions: Using the contrast clues in each sentence, select the choice that best
defines each boldfaced word.
1. Most members of Western society marry only one person at a
time, but in other cultures polygamy is common and acceptable.
a. marriage to one person at a time
b. marriage to more than one person at a time
c. living together without marriage
2. During a drought, plants that are indigenous to the area
typically do better than non-native plants.
a. native c. dry
b. imported d. growing
3. The turkey was overcooked and extremely dry, so we added
gravy to make it more palatable.
a. cooked c. spicy
b. edible d. unpleasant
4. Although every effort was made to ensure that the test was fair,
several students complained that the questions were skewed.
a. equal c. biased
b. too easy d. repeated
5. Everyone on the jury was persuaded of the defendant’s innocence
except for one juror, who remained dubious.
a. doubtful c. curious
b. convinced d. trusting
6. Despite the secular nature of public schools, many teachers
begin each day by leading their students in a short prayer.
a. spiritual c. private
b. educational d. nonreligious
7. The author seemed taciturn during his television interview, but
when I met him in person, he was quite sociable.
a. loud and talkative c. quiet and reserved
b. anxious and upset d. unhappy and distraught
6 Answer Key
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8. While several aspects of the zoo’s mission were still open to discussion, its commitment to preserving endangered species was
a. not decided c. too expensive
b. not subject to change d. ideal
9. Most humans are omnivores, in contrast to herbivores such as
cattle and deer, which are more selective in their diets and feed
mainly on plants.
a. those who eat plants only
b. those who eat meat only
c. those who eat plants and meat
d. those who are selective about what they eat
10. One of the school board candidates was vehement about the
new truancy policy; his opponent, on the other hand, expressed
her views calmly and quietly.
a. forceful c. confused
b. polite d. mistaken
EXERCISE 2-5 Understanding Inference Context Clues
Directions: Using logic and reasoning skills, select the choice that best defines
each boldfaced word.
1. Although my grandmother is 82, she is far from infirm; she is
active, ambitious, and healthy.
a. weak c. retired
b. youthful d. capable
2. After leaving Manila, we flew over the Philippine archipelago,
admiring the islands from our airplane window.
a. airport c. group of islands
b. government d. population
3. The senator has served eight contiguous six-year terms in office.
a. intensive c. unintended
b. uninterrupted d. disconnected
4. One fallacy about smokeless tobacco is that it is less harmful
than smoking. In fact, smokeless tobacco contains ten times the
amount of cancer-producing substances found in cigarettes.
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a. truth c. advertisement
b. false belief d. advantage
5. The massive influx of refugees put such a severe strain on the
country’s economy that many of the refugees had to be relocated
to other countries.
a. exit c. money
b. arrival d. assistance
6. After he was caught cheating, the student suffered the ignominy
of being expelled from the school.
a. frequency c. disgrace
b. agreement d. attitude
7. By studying their genealogy, many people hope to glean
knowledge about their family history and their ancestors.
a. change c. authorize
b. gather d. hide
8. Maria was able to parlay her computer skills into a successful
career as a Web page designer.
a. use to her advantage c. talk about her talents
b. reduce job stress d. question her career choice
9. In her victory speech, the newly elected state representative
thanked her supporters and pledged to be responsive to her
a. the residents of an electoral district
b. government officials
c. state representatives
d. personal interests
10. After tasting and eating most of seven different desserts, my
appetite was completely satiated.
a. satisfied c. tempted
b. unfulfilled d. created
8 Answer Key
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EXERCISE 2-6 Using Prefixes
Directions: Using the list of common prefixes in Table 2-1, match each word in
column A with its meaning in column B.
a. using many tonalities in a musical
b. plan or arrange ahead of time
c. occurring after a glacial period
d. not fit to be eaten
e. to act against
f. having all sides or faces equal
g. having two focal lengths
h. to cross beyond the limits
i. having high blood pressure
j. destroying or inhibiting the growth
Answer Key 9
10. equilateral f
EXERCISE 2-7 Understanding Prefixes
Directions: Select a prefix from the box below to complete the word indicated
in each of the following sentences.
1. We vented the problem by calculating in metrics.
2. Because of its standard performance on safety tests, the release
of the new model car was delayed.
3. The new purpose building contained conference rooms, a dining
area, and a gym.
bi ir sub circum multi
tele deca post dis pseudo
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4. The damaging effects of long-term exposure to the sun are
5. After surgery, patients should discuss their operative care with
6. A nary star system contains two stars.
7. In a thlon, each athlete competes in ten track and field events.
8. Samuel Langhorne Clemens is better known by his nym,
9. Production of the camera was continued because of declining
10. Amateur astronomers use a scope to view the sky. tele
10 Answer Key
EXERCISE 2-8 Using Roots
Directions: Using the list of common roots in Table 2-2, match each word in
column A with its meaning in column B. To help you, the root in each word in
column A is in italics.
Column A Column B
1. spectator a. happening at the same time
2. mortality b. a scholarly piece of writing on a
10. invoke i
c. a device for looking at objects below the
surface of water
d. the quality of being subject to death
e. related to the sense of hearing
f. a person who looks on at an event
g. centering on God
h. beneath the earth’s surface; underground
i. to call on for help or support
j. choice and use of words in speech and
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Answer Key 11
EXERCISE 2-9 Understanding Roots
Directions: Select the word from the box below that best completes each of the
following sentences. Refer to the list of roots in Table 2-2 if you need help.
asters benefactor capacity chronology exportation
graphology pathos phototropic sensor transmit
1. The witness carefully described the of events to the
2. Certain countries forbid the of endangered animals.
3. We planted because we loved their star-shaped flowers.
4. Mosquitoes the West Nile virus from infected birds to
5. Our skin serves as a for heat, cold, pressure, touch, and
6. An anonymous donated $10,000 worth of books to the
7. The final scene of the play was one of and sorrow.
8. The study of handwriting is known as .
9. On the night of the debate, the town hall was filled to .
10. Most plants are ; that is, they grow in the direction of
their light source.
EXERCISE 2-10 Using Suffixes
Directions: From each list of four words, select the choice that best completes
the sentence that follows. Write your answer in the space provided.
1. uniforms, uniformity, uniformed, uniforming
The of a law requires that it be applied to all relevant
groups without bias.
2. competed, competitor, competition, competitive
When food sources are not large enough to support all the organisms in a
habitat, environmental occurs. competition
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3. effective, effected, effectively, effectiveness
When evaluating a piece of art, consider its —how well
the artist’s message has been conveyed to the audience.
4. instruction, instructor, instructive, instructs
The lecture on Islamic traditions was .
5. attendees, attendance, attends, attending
All at the conference received a complimentary
6. inherit, inheritable, inherited, inheritance
The university was stunned by the size of its from one
of its former students.
7. driven, driver, drivable, drivability
After the accident, our car was not so we called a tow
8. participate, participation, participant, participative
Students in the workshop were graded partly on their
in class discussions.
9. identify, identifier, identifiable, identification
Taxonomy is the branch of science concerned with the
and classification of species.
10. internship, internist, interned, interning
During my senior year in college, I accepted an at the
12 Answer Key
EXERCISE 2-11 Understanding Connotations
Directions: Practice understanding connotations by answering the following
1. One of your friends owns a rusty old car that you think should
be brought to the junkyard. Which word or phrase would you
use to describe it?
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Answer Key 13
a. a hot rod b. a sweet ride c. a clunker
2. Another friend owns a 1970 Mustang convertible that’s in
perfect condition. Which word would you use to describe the
a. classic b. old c. nostalgic
3. The Rolex company wants to use a word with positive connotations to advertise its expensive watches. Which word would you
advise Rolex to use?
a. wristwatch b. clock c. timepiece
EXERCISE 2-12 Analyzing Connotative Meanings
Directions: Read the following excerpt from a college textbook and answer the
questions that follow.
Whenever society changes, so do our lives. Consider the information explosion. When you graduate from college, you will most likely do some
form of “knowledge work.” Instead of working in a factory, you will
manage information or design, sell, or service products. The type of work
you do has profound implications for your life. It produces social networks, nurtures attitudes, and even affects how you view yourself and the
—Henslin, Sociology: A Down-to-Earth Approach, p. 399
1. Why does the author use the word explosion to describe the information
society? What are the word’s denotation and connotation?
2. The author uses the words profound and nurture. What are the
connotations of these words? How do they make you feel as you read the
effects of the work you do on your life.
something warm and even parental. The overall sense is one of the positive, important
“Profound” connotes something extremely important and deep, while “nurture” implies
that information has grown more rapidly than people expected or can handle.
An “explosion” occurs when something blows up. Here, the word’s connotation implies
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PRACTICE TEST 2-1
Context and Word Parts
Directions: Using context clues and/or word parts, select the choice that best
defines the boldfaced word in each sentence.
1. It is more efficient to take lecture notes in your own words
than to try to record the lecture verbatim.
a. word for word c. using verbs
b. using abbreviations d. using an outline
2. In some societies, young children are on the periphery instead
of in the center of family life.
a. focus c. edge
b. inside d. middle
3. Amelia enjoys all equestrian sports, including jumping,
riding, and racing horses.
a. group c. organized
b. indoor d. horseback
4. Despite his love of the country, he renounced his citizenship
when war broke out.
a. kept c. gave up
b. publicized d. applied for
5. After we bought a grill on the Internet, we were inundated
with e-mail offers for related items.
a. sold c. convinced
b. flooded d. investigated
6. To treat the inflammation, the patient must receive shots
a. within the muscle c. between muscles
b. next to the muscle d. away from the muscle
7. The students reacted to the extra assignment with incredulity.
a. relief c. excitement
b. indifference d. disbelief
8. The poll was conducted by a nonpartisan group based in
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a. associated with several political parties
b. not associated with a political party
c. locally funded
9. A key part of the experiment involved photosensitive cells.
a. responsive to light c. responsive to sound
b. responsive to heat d. responsive to color
10. The surface of the moon appears to be abiotic.
a. without heat c. producing heat
b. without life d. producing life
PRACTICE TEST 2-2
Context and Word Parts
Directions: Using context clues and/or word parts, select the choice that best
defines each boldfaced word in the following paragraphs.
If you have ever tried to perform heavy manual labor on a hot summer day,
you may have become weak and dizzy as a result. If your exertions were severe, you may have even collapsed and lost consciousness momentarily. If
this has happened to you, then you have experienced heat exhaustion. Heat
exhaustion is a consequence of the body’s effort to regulate its temperature—
in particular, its efforts to get rid of excess heat. When the body must get rid of
a large quantity of heat, massive quantities of sweat can be produced, leading
to a significant reduction in blood volume. In addition, blood flow to the skin
increases markedly, which diverts blood from other areas of the body. Together, these changes produce a reduction in blood pressure, which reduces
blood flow to the brain and precipitates the symptoms just described.
A far more serious condition is heat stroke, in which the body’s temperature
rises out of control due to failure of the thermoregulatory system. The skin of
individuals experiencing heat stroke has a flushed appearance but will also be
dry, in contrast to the profuse sweating of heat exhaustion. If someone is experiencing heat stroke, immediate medical attention is of the utmost importance.
—adapted from Germann and Stanfield,
Principles of Human Physiology, p. 9
a. temperature c. breaks
Answer Key 15
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b. conditions d. efforts
a. sense of right and wrong c. state of awareness
b. carefulness d. insensitivity
a. cause c. difference
b. result d. complication
a. quality c. scarce
b. normal d. extra
a. huge c. minor
b. harmless d. immediate
a. increase c. strengthening
b. decrease d. improvement
a. redirects c. continues
b. forms d. conceals
a. prevents c. brings on
b. follows d. alters
a. controlling hearing c. controlling feeling
b. controlling vision d. controlling heat
a. dry c. extensive
b. scarce d. healthy
MASTERY TEST 2-1
Context and Word Parts
1. probiotics (par. 1) live microorganisms in fermented foods
16 Answer Key
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2. adhere (par. 3)
3. short-lived (par. 3)
4. immune cells (par. 3)
5. circumstances (par. 4)
6. enhance (par. 4)
7. consumed (par. 5)
8. maximal (par. 5)
9. shelf-life (par. 5)
10. perishable (par. 5)
MASTERY TEST 2-2
Context and Word Parts
MASTERY TEST 2-3
CHECKING YOUR COMPREHENSION
1. The main point of the reading is that
a. bicyclists in the Tour de France have been caught using
rank based on length of service
related to formal occasions
able to decay
cells that fight infection
Answer Key 17
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b. the drug Epo is a naturally occurring substance that
should not be banned in athletic competitions.
c. researchers are attempting to create a safe and legal form
d. athletes risk penalties and their health by using Epo to
enhance their performance in races.
2. The main idea of paragraph 3 is that
a. red blood cells transport oxygen to the body’s tissues.
b. blood doping enhances physical endurance by increasing
c. blood-doping techniques are complicated and ineffective.
d. the drug Epo stimulates the production of red blood cells.
3. The Festina bicycling team was banned from the 1998 Tour
de France because
a. a blood test revealed that members of the team had used
b. a urine test revealed that members of the team had used Epo.
c. a member of the team was caught injecting Epo.
d. the team’s car was found to contain Epo.
4. Athletes use Epo (or blood doping) in order to
a. extend the period in which their muscle cells have access
b. decrease the amount of oxygen that reaches their tissues.
c. reduce their risk of heart failure during a strenuous race.
d. decrease the period in which their muscle cells require
5. Before a race, athletes introduce Epo into their bodies
a. injecting a manufactured version of Epo.
b. swallowing a protein supplement that contains Epo.
c. rubbing an ointment containing Epo on their legs.
d. working out to increase the quantities of naturally occurring Epo in their bodies.
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USING CONTEXT CLUES AND WORD PARTS
6. In paragraph 1, impending means
b. about to happen.
7. In paragraph 1, grueling means
8. In paragraph 2, expulsion means
9. In paragraph 3, capacity means
10. In paragraph 6, laden means
a. heavy or filled.
c. strong and forceful.
11. In paragraph 7, elite means
c. top quality.
12. In paragraph 7, banned means
b. large quantity.
Answer Key 19
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13. In paragraph 8, subtle means
b. hardly noticeable.
14. In paragraph 8, density means
15. In paragraph 8, disqualified means
d. denied participation.
REVIEWING DIFFICULT VOCABULARY
Directions: Complete each of the following sentences by inserting a word
from the Vocabulary Preview on page 82 in the space provided. Use each
word only once.
16. The most common monosaccharides, or simple sugars, include
, fructose, and galactose.
17. The dinner party was a : the guests were late, the
food was overcooked, and the ceiling began to leak halfway through
18. After describing several economic theories, the
professor moved on to the more familiar and well-known Keynesian
20 Answer Key
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19. When an animal hibernates, its slows down and
its temperature drops.
20. In the process of diffusion, of a substance spread
evenly through a gas, liquid, or solid.