Instant Download with all chapters and Answers
*you will get solution manuals in PDF in best viewable format after buy*
The CPA Profession
2-1 The four major services that CPAs provide are:
1. Audit and assurance services Assurance services are independent
professional services that improve the quality of information for
decision makers. Assurance services include attestation services,
which are any services in which the CPA firm issues a report that
expresses a conclusion about the reliability of an assertion that is
the responsibility of another party. The four categories of attestation
services are audits of historical financial statements, attestation on
the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting, reviews
of historical financial statements, and other attestation services.
2. Accounting and bookkeeping services Accounting services involve
preparing the client’s financial statements from the client’s records.
Bookkeeping services include the preparation of the client’s journals
and ledgers as well as financial statements.
3. Tax services Tax services include preparation of corporate, individual,
and estate returns as well as tax-planning assistance.
4. Management consulting services These services range from
suggestions to improve the client’s accounting system to computer
2-2 The major characteristics of CPA firms that permit them to fulfill their social
function competently and independently are:
1. Organizational form A CPA firm exists as a separate entity to avoid
an employer-employee relationship with its clients. The CPA firm
employs a professional staff of sufficient size to prevent one client
from constituting a significant portion of total income and thereby
endangering the firm’s independence.
2. Conduct A CPA firm employs a professional staff of sufficient size
to provide a broad range of expertise, continuing education, and
promotion of a professional independent attitude and competence.
3. Peer review This practice evaluates the performance of CPA firms
in an attempt to keep competence high.
2-3 The Public Company Accounting Oversight Board provides oversight for
auditors of public companies, including establishing auditing and quality control
standards for public company audits, and performing inspections of the quality
controls at audit firms performing those audits.
2-4 The purpose of the Securities and Exchange Commission is to assist in
providing investors with reliable information upon which to make investment
decisions. Since most reasonably large CPA firms have clients that must file
reports with the SEC each year (all companies filing registration statements
under the securities acts of 1933 and 1934 must file audited financial statements
and other reports with the SEC at least once each year), the profession is highly
involved with the SEC requirements.
The SEC has considerable influence in setting generally accepted
accounting principles and disclosure requirements for financial statements
because of its authority for specifying reporting requirements considered
necessary for fair disclosure to investors. In addition, the SEC has power to
establish rules for any CPA associated with audited financial statements submitted
to the Commission.
2-5 The AICPA is the organization that sets professional requirements for
CPAs. The AICPA also conducts research and publishes materials on many
different subjects related to accounting, auditing, management advisory services,
and taxes. The organization also prepares and grades the CPA examinations,
provides continuing education to its members, and develops specialty designations
to help market and assure the quality of services in specialized practice areas.
2-6 Statements on Standards for Attestation Engagements provide a framework
for attest engagements, including detailed standards for specific types of
2-7 The PCAOB has responsibility for establishing auditing standards for U.S.
public companies, while the Auditing Standards Board (ASB) of the AICPA
establishes auditing standards for U.S. private companies. Prior to the creation of
the PCAOB, the ASB had responsibility for establishing auditing standards for
both public and private companies. Because existing auditing standards were
adopted by the PCAOB as interim auditing standards for public company audits,
there is considerable overlap in the two sets of auditing standards.
2-8 Auditing standards represent the combination of the four principles and
all the Statements on Auditing Standards (SASs) that are codified in the AU-C
sections. While the 10 GAAS standards highlighted in Table 2-3 are no longer
referenced as general, fieldwork, and reporting standards, the underlying concepts
contained in those continue to be relevant in U.S. auditing standards. Examples
of auditing standards include any of the SASs (e.g., SAS No. 125).
Generally accepted accounting principles are specific rules for accounting
for transactions occurring in a business enterprise. Examples may be any of the
opinions of the FASB, such as accounting for leases, pensions, or fair value
2-9 Auditors develop their competency and capabilities for performing an audit
through formal education in auditing and accounting, adequate practical
experience, and continuing professional education. Auditors can demonstrate
their proficiency by becoming licensed to practice as CPAs, which requires
successful completion of the Uniform CPA Examination. The specific requirements
for licensure vary from state to state.
2-10 For the most part, auditing standards, including SASs, are general rather
than specific. Many practitioners along with critics of the profession believe the
standards should provide more clearly defined guidelines as an aid in
determining the extent of evidence to be accumulated. This would eliminate
some of the difficult audit decisions and provide a source of defense if the CPA is
charged with conducting an inadequate audit. On the other hand, highly specific
requirements could turn auditing into mechanical evidence gathering, void of
professional judgment. From the point of view of both the profession and the
users of auditing services, there is probably a greater harm from defining
authoritative guidelines too specifically than too broadly.
2-11 International Standards on Auditing (ISAs) are issued by the International
Auditing and Assurance Standards Board (IAASB) of the International Federation
of Accountants (IFAC) and are designed to improve the uniformity of auditing
practices and related services throughout the world. The IAASB issues
pronouncements on a variety of audit and attest functions and promotes their
acceptance worldwide. As a result of efforts by the Auditing Standards Board to
converge U.S. GAAS with international standards, AICPA auditing standards and
International Standards on Auditing are similar in most respects.
2-12 Quality controls are the procedures used by a CPA firm that help it meet its
professional responsibilities to clients. Quality controls are therefore established
for the entire CPA firm as opposed to individual engagements.
2-13 The element of quality control is personnel management. The purpose of
the requirement is to help assure CPA firms that all new personnel are qualified
to perform their work competently. A CPA firm must have competent employees
conducting the audits if quality audits are to occur.
2-14 A peer review is a review, by CPAs, of a CPA firm’s compliance with its
quality control system. A mandatory peer review means that such a review is
required periodically. AICPA member firms are required to have a peer review
every three years. Registered firms with the PCAOB are subject to quality
inspections. These are different than peer reviews because they are performed
by independent inspection teams rather than another CPA firm.
Peer reviews can be beneficial to the profession and to individual firms. By
helping firms meet quality control standards, the profession gains if reviews result
in practitioners doing higher quality audits. A firm having a peer review can also
gain if it improves the firm’s practices and thereby enhances its reputation and
effectiveness, and reduces the likelihood of lawsuits. Of course, peer reviews are
costly. There is always a trade-off between cost and benefits.
Multiple Choice Questions From CPA Examinations
2-15 a. (2) b. (1)
2-16 a. (2) b. (3) c. (3)
2-17 a. (1) b. (2) c. (3)
Discussion Questions And Problems
2-18 a. The main objective of an audit of financial statements is to obtain
reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements as a
whole are free from material misstatement, whether due to fraud or
error, thereby enabling the auditor to express an opinion in a written
report on whether the financial statements are presented fairly, in
all material respects, in accordance with an applicable financial
b. No. In an audit of the financial statements, the auditor performs
audit procedures to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the
financial statements contain material misstatements. While a high
level of assurance, reasonable assurance is less than a guarantee―
which implies absolute (100%) assurance. In an audit, the auditor
issues an opinion on whether the financial statements are presented
fairly, but the auditor is not guaranteeing that the financial statements
are accurate with certainty.
c. No. Fraud is a broad legal concept that describes any intentional
deceit meant to deprive another person or party of their property or
rights. The auditor does not take responsibility for detecting all
types of fraud, given many types of fraud do not impact the financial
statements. Instead, the auditor performs auditing procedures to
obtain reasonable assurance that the financial statements do not
contain material misstatements, whether due to fraud or error.
Thus, the auditor is concerned with detecting fraud that leads to a
material misstatement. The auditor is not responsible for detecting
fraud that does not lead to a material misstatement.
d. Each entity faces a number of risks unique to the nature of its
business and industry. The types of operations, the extent of
regulation, how the organization obtains capital to fund its business
model, and the nature of accounts in the financial statements,
among other factors, each trigger different types of risks that could
lead to material misstatements. In addition, there are unique
accounting standards for certain industries that impact how
transactions, accounts, and disclosures are reported in financial
statements. Thus, a thorough understanding of the client’s business
is critical to assessing the risk of material misstatements in the
financial statements when planning the audit.
e. The auditor is responsible for obtaining sufficient appropriate audit
evidence about whether the financial statements are free of
material misstatements. In addition to understanding whether the
amounts reported in the financial statements are mathematically
accurate, the auditor obtains other types of information to determine
that the amounts reported represent valid transactions and accounts
and that all valid transactions and accounts are included in those
statements. Evidence is also gathered to determine that the entity
has the rights to assets and has the obligation to repay liabilities
reflected in those financial statements and whether the correct
disclosures are included in the financial statements as required by
2-19 a. Engagement performance
c. Engagement performance
d. Engagement performance
e. Relevant ethical requirement
f. Human resources
g. Human resources
h. Acceptance and continuation of clients and engagements
i. Engagement performance
j. Leadership responsibilities
2-20 a. The AICPA Auditing Standards Board (ASB) is responsible for
issuing standards in the U.S. to be used by auditors when auditing
the financial statements of all entities other than U.S. publicly
traded companies. The Public Company Accounting Oversight Board
(PCAOB) is responsible for issuing standards to be used by auditors
when auditing a U.S. public company.
b. The International Auditing and Assurance Standards Board (IAASB)
of the International Federation of Accountants (IFAC) is responsible
for issuing International Standards on Auditing (ISAs). The ISAs do
not override a specific country’s regulations governing the audit of
c. The ASB has revised most of its standards to converge them with
the international standards. As a result, U.S. standards are mostly
consistent with international standards, except for certain requirements
that reflect unique characteristics of the U.S. environment.
d. When developing a new SAS, the ASB uses the ISAs as the
base standard and then modifies that base standard only when
appropriate for the U.S. environment.
e. The PCAOB develops and issues its standards. While the PCAOB
considers existing international standards, it does not start with
the ISA standard as the base.
HOLMES’ ACTIONS RESULTING IN
FAILURE TO COMPLY WITH PRINCIPLE
The auditor must possess the
competency and capabilities
to perform the audit.
It was inappropriate for Holmes to hire the two
students to conduct the audit. The audit must
be conducted by persons with proper
education and experience in the field of
auditing. Although a junior assistant has not
completed his formal education, he may help in
the conduct of the audit as long as there is
proper supervision and review.
The auditor must comply
with ethical requirements, which
independence in mental attitude
in all matters relating to the
To satisfy this principle, Holmes must be without
bias with respect to the client under audit.
Holmes has an obligation for fairness to the
owners, management, and creditors who may
rely on the report. Because of the financial
interest in whether the bank loan is granted to
Ray, Holmes is independent in neither fact nor
appearance with respect to the assignment
The auditor must maintain
professional skepticism and
exercise professional judgment
in the performance of the audit
and the preparation of the
This principle requires Holmes to perform the
audit with due care, which imposes on Holmes
and everyone in Holmes’ organization a
responsibility to observe the principles of
performance and reporting. Maintaining
professional skepticism and exercising
professional judgment require critical review at
every level of supervision of the work done and
the judgments exercised by those assisting in
the audit. Holmes did not review the work or
the judgments of the assistants and clearly
failed to adhere to this standard.
HOLMES’ ACTIONS RESULTING IN
FAILURE TO COMPLY WITH PRINCIPLE
The auditor must adequately plan
the work and must properly
supervise any assistants.
This principle recognizes that early appointment
of the auditor has advantages for the auditor
and the client. Holmes accepted the
engagement without considering the
availability of competent staff. In addition,
Holmes failed to supervise the assistants. The
work performed was not adequately planned.
The auditor must identify and
assess the risks of material
misstatement based on a
sufficient understanding of the
entity and its environment,
including its internal control, to
design the nature, timing, and
extent of further audit
Holmes did not obtain an understanding of the
entity or its internal control, nor did the
assistants obtain such an understanding.
There appears to have been no audit at all.
The work performed was more an accounting
service than it was an auditing service.
The auditor must obtain sufficient
appropriate audit evidence by
performing audit procedures to
afford a reasonable basis for an
opinion regarding the financial
statements under audit.
Holmes acquired no evidence that would
support the financial statements. Holmes
merely checked the mathematical accuracy of
the records and summarized the accounts.
Standard audit procedures and techniques
were not performed.
HOLMES’ ACTIONS RESULTING IN
FAILURE TO COMPLY WITH PRINCIPLE
The auditor must express an
opinion in a written report about
whether the financial statements
are presented in accordance
with the applicable financial
The auditor must either express
an opinion regarding the
financial statements, taken as a
whole, or state that an opinion
cannot be expressed in the
auditor’s report. When the
auditor cannot express an
overall opinion, the auditor
should state the reasons
therefor in the auditor’s report.
In all cases where an auditor’s
name is associated with
financial statements, the auditor
should clearly indicate the
character of the auditor’s work,
if any, and the degree of
responsibility the auditor is
taking, in the auditor’s report.
Holmes’ report made no reference to generally
accepted accounting principles. Because
Holmes did not conduct a proper audit, the
report should state that no opinion can be
expressed as to the fair presentation of the
financial statements in accordance with
generally accepted accounting principles.
Although Holmes’ report contains an expression
of opinion, such opinion is not based on the
results of a proper audit. Holmes should
disclaim an opinion because he failed to
conduct an audit in accordance with auditing
The auditor must assess whether
the financial statements are
presented in accordance with
the financial reporting
Holmes’ improper audit would not enable him to
determine whether generally accepted
accounting principles were consistently
applied. Holmes’ report should make no
reference to the consistent application of
Management is primarily responsible for
adequate disclosures in the financial
statements, but when the statements do
not contain adequate disclosures the auditor
should make such disclosures in
the auditor’s report. In this case both the
statements and the auditor’s report lack
2-22 a. U.S. generally accepted auditing standards.
b. International auditing standards.
c. PCAOB auditing standards.
d. PCAOB auditing standards (reporting in the U.K. will be under
international auditing standards).
e. U.S. generally accepted auditing standards.
f. U.S. generally accepted auditing standards.
g. International auditing standards.
h. PCAOB auditing standards (due to the publicly traded debt).
Research Problem 2-1: International Auditing and Assurance Standards
a. The objective of the IAASB is to serve the public interest by setting
high-quality auditing and assurance standards and by facilitating
the convergence of international and national standards, thereby
enhancing the quality and uniformity of practice throughout the
world and strengthening public confidence in the global auditing
and assurance profession. International Standards on Auditing
(ISA) are used by auditors in countries that have adopted ISAs as
their auditing standards.
b. The IAASB follows a due process in setting standards.
The standards-setting Public Interest Activity Committees (PIAC)
identify new projects based on review of international developments
and consultation with the Public Interest Oversight Board. PIAC
meetings are open to the public and written materials are prepared
The PIAC is responsible for consulting with the PIAC Consultative
Advisory Group (CAG) on the identication and prioritization of
projects to be undertaken by the PIAC.
The project may be assigned to a task force, which considers
whether to hold a public forum or roundtable.
Draft pronouncements are exposed for a minimum of 90 days.
The task force considers all comments and whether re-exposure
When the Project Task Force is satisfied that it has a proposed
final pronouncement ready for approval, it presents the revised
content of the exposed standard to the PIAC for approval.
The PIAC votes on the approval or withdrawal of the
Research Problem 2-1 (continued)
c. The IAASB is committed to transparency. Where practicable, meetings
are broadcast over the Internet or recorded. Meeting agendas and
minutes are published on the International Federation of Accountants
(IFAC) Web site. All exposure drafts are subject to public exposure
for a minimum of 90 days. Meetings of the PIAC are open to the
(Note: Research problems address current issues, using Internet sources. Because
Internet sites are subject to change, Research problems and solutions may change.
Any revisions to Research problems will be posted on the book’s Web site at