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Fragments, Run-ons, and Comma Splices
EXERCISE 33.1, FRAGMENTS (p. 401)
1. Flying squirrels are like typical squirrels except they have flaps of skin that allow them to
2. Flying squirrels glide gracefully from tree to tree with surprising ease.
3. To gain speed and momentum, flying squirrels often free-fall for several feet. Then, to turn in
midair, they lower one arm.
4. The Japanese giant flying squirrel is one of the largest known varieties, spanning two feet
long from its head to its furry tail.
5. By gliding, flying squirrels escape predators and gather food quickly.
EXERCISE 33.2, FRAGMENTS (p. 402)
Answers will vary. The text underlined below includes revisions of the fragments found in the
Barton Springs still seems like a place not in Texas for those who come from elsewhere.
The surrounding hills are covered by live oaks and mountain juniper. The ground around the
pool is shaded by pecan trees whose trunks are a dozen feet in circumference. Banana trees and
other tropical plants grow in the roofless dressing areas of the pool, and grackles whistle junglelike sounds outside. The pool, which is in a natural limestone creek bed an eighth of a mile long,
is fed by 27,000,000 gallons of 68° water bubbling out of the Edwards Aquifer each day.
EXERCISE 33.3, RUN-ON SENTENCES (p. 404)
1. The original Kabuki troupes were mostly comprised of female dancers; however, male
performers replaced them after the art became associated with prostitution.
2. Performances that included several thematically linked elements such as dance, history, and
domestic drama lasted up to twelve hours.
3. In the 1700s, choreographers and special schools became commonplace; thus, Kabuki dance
became more complex.
4. Kabuki costumes are often quite elaborate; actors sometimes need assistance preparing for
5. Since World War II, Western influences have altered the social position of Kabuki. Ticket
prices have risen, making performances more accessible to tourists, but not the average
EXERCISE 33.4, COMMA SPLICES (p. 407)
1. Riefenstahl spent her early days performing in Germany as a dancer. However, a 1924
knee injury derailed her dance career, detouring her into a successful, scandal-ridden life
2. Early editing work prepared her to direct her first film, The Blue Light; however, national
recognition was slow to come.
3. The year 1935 saw the release of Riefenstahl’s film, Triumph of the Will, which
stunningly captured a Nazi Party rally. To be sure, this film forever cast a shadow over
the director’s career.
4. By pioneering techniques such as the underwater camera, Riefenstahl captured the spirit
of athletics in her documentary of the 1936 Olympics, Olympiad, and she solidified her
place in film history.
5. Riefenstahl, who was not an active member of the Nazi Party, was imprisoned by the
French because her films were considered Nazi propaganda. Her film career was forever
ruined by such insinuation.