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Fragments, Run-ons, and Comma Splices
EXERCISE 33–1, FRAGMENTS (p. 399)
1. Flying squirrels are like typical squirrels except they have flaps
of skin that allow them to glide.
2. Flying squirrels glide gracefully from tree to tree with
3. To gain speed and momentum, flying squirrels often free-fall
for several feet. Then, to turn in midair, they lower one arm.
4. The Japanese giant flying squirrel is one of the largest known
varieties, spanning two feet long from its head to its furry tail.
5. By gliding, flying squirrels escape predators and gather food
EXERCISE 33–2, FRAGMENTS (p. 401)
Answers will vary. The text underlined below includes revisions of
the fragments found in the original paragraph.
Barton Springs still seems like a place not in Texas for those who
come from elsewhere. The surrounding hills are covered by live
oaks and mountain juniper. The ground around the pool is shaded
by pecan trees whose trunks are a dozen feet in circumference.
Banana trees and other tropical plants grow in the roofless dressing
areas of the pool, and grackles whistle jungle-like sounds outside.
The pool, which is in a natural limestone creek bed an eighth of a
mile long, is fed by 27,000,000 gallons of 68° water bubbling out
of the Edwards Aquifer each day.
EXERCISE 33–3, RUN-ON SENTENCES (p. 402)
1. The original Kabuki troupes were mostly comprised of female
dancers; however, male performers replaced them after the art
became associated with prostitution.
2. Performances that included several thematically linked
elements such as dance, history, and domestic drama lasted up
to twelve hours.
3. In the 1700s, choreographers and special schools became
commonplace; thus, Kabuki dance became more complex.
4. Kabuki costumes are often quite elaborate; actors sometimes
need assistance preparing for performances.
5. Since World War II, Western influences have altered the social
position of Kabuki. Ticket prices have risen, making
performances more accessible to tourists, but not the average
EXERCISE 33–4, COMMA SPLICES (p. 405)
1. Riefenstahl spent her early days performing in Germany as
a dancer. However, a 1924 knee injury derailed her dance
career, detouring her into a successful, scandal-ridden life
2. Early editing work prepared her to direct her first film, The
Blue Light; however, national recognition was slow to
3. The year 1935 saw the release of Riefenstahl’s film,
Triumph of the Will, which stunningly captured a Nazi
Party rally. To be sure, this film forever cast a shadow over
the director’s career.
4. By pioneering techniques such as the underwater camera,
Riefenstahl captured the spirit of athletics in her
documentary of the 1936 Olympics, Olympia, and she
solidified her place in film history.
5. Riefenstahl, who was not an active member of the Nazi
Party, was imprisoned by the French because her films
were considered Nazi propaganda. Her film career was
forever ruined by such insinuation.