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Exercise 1 DIRECTIONS Write a paragraph describing yourself as a learner. Include aspects
of your learning style and give examples from everyday experience that confirm
your profile. Explain any results of the Learning Style Questionnaire with which you
Answers will vary.
DIRECTIONS After you have completed the chart in Exercise 2, select one of your Exercise 3
instructors whose teaching style does not match your learning style. Write a paragraph describing the differences in your styles. Explain how you will change your
study methods to make up for these differences.•
Answers will vary.
DIRECTIONS Analyze your instructors’ teaching styles by completing the Exercise 2
following chart for the courses you are taking this semester. List as many
teaching characteristics as you can, but do not try to cover every aspect of
Answers will vary.
6. __________________________________________________________________________ •
DIRECTIONS Consider each of the following learning situations. Answer each Exercise 4
question by suggesting active learning approaches.
1. A graded exam is returned to you by your history professor. How could you use
this as a learning device?
2. You have been assigned “Letter from Birmingham Jail” by Martin Luther King,
Jr., for your English composition class. What questions would you try to answer
as you read?
3. Your biology course requires a weekly lab. How would you prepare for attending
this lab? Review the procedures before attending the lab; underline key steps in
the lab manual.
4. You have been assigned by your sociology instructor to read an article in
Newsweek on crime in major U.S. cities. How would you record important
ideas? Make summary or outline notes.
Answers will vary. Sample
answers are provided.
Identify and jot down areas (topics, periods) of weakness;
look for patterns, such as the types of questions missed; find out from where the
Why did King write the letter? What key points was he trying to make?
What does the letter reveal about the time period during which it was written?
questions were taken (text or lecture); use it as a review for the final exam.
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2 CHAPTER 2 Learning Style and Learning Strategies
DIRECTIONS Identify the level or levels of thinking that each of the following Exercise 5
1. Retelling a favorite family story to your nieces and nephews
2. Using the principles of time management discussed in Chapter 1 to develop a
weekly study plan
3. Learning the names of the U.S. presidents since World War II
4. Reorganizing your lecture notes by topic
5. Writing a letter to the editor of your hometown newspaper praising a recently
passed city ordinance that restricts new toxic-waste disposal sites
evaluating and creating
6. Writing a term paper that requires library and online research
7. Using prereading techniques when reading your speech communication textbook
8. Listening to speeches by two candidates who are running for mayor and then
deciding which one gets your vote
9. Watching several hours of TV programming to determine the amount of time
given to commercials, to public service announcements, to entertainment
programs, and to news
10. Writing an article for the campus newspaper explaining why on-campus parking
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CHAPTER 2 Learning Style and Learning Strategies 3
Exercise 6 DIRECTIONS Read “Dimensions of Nonverbal Communication” and answer the
questions that follow.
Dimensions of Nonverbal Communication
In recent years, research has reemphasized the important role of physical, or nonverbal, behaviors in effective oral communication. Basically, three generalizations about
nonverbal communication should occupy your attention when you are a speaker:
1. Speakers reveal and reflect their emotional states through their nonverbal behaviors.
Your listeners read your feelings toward yourself, your topic, and your audience
from your facial expressions. Consider the contrast between a speaker who walks
to the front of the room briskly, head held high, and one who shuffles, head
bowed and arms hanging limply. Communications scholar Dale G. Leathers
summarized a good deal of research into nonverbal communication processes:
“Feelings and emotions are more accurately exchanged by nonverbal than verbal means. . . . The nonverbal portion of communication conveys meanings and
intentions that are relatively free from deception, distortion, and confusion.”
2. The speaker’s nonverbal cues enrich or elaborate the message that comes through
words. A solemn face can reinforce the dignity of a funeral eulogy. The words
“Either do this or do that” can be illustrated with appropriate arm-and-hand
gestures. Taking a few steps to one side tells an audience that you are moving from one argument to another. A smile enhances a lighter moment in your
3. Nonverbal messages form a reciprocal interaction between speaker and listener.
Listeners frown, smile, shift nervously in their seats, and engage in many types
of nonverbal behavior. . . . There are four areas of nonverbal communication
that concern every speaker: (a) proxemics, (b) movement and stance, (c) facial
expressions, and (d) gestures.
—Gronbeck et al., Principles of Speech Communication, pp. 217–218
1. Remembering: What are the three generalizations?
a. Speakers reveal and reflect their emotional states through nonverbal behavior.
b. The speaker’s nonverbal cues enrich or elaborate the message that comes through words.
c. Nonverbal messages from a reciprocal interaction between speaker and listener.
2. Understanding: Explain how a speaker can reveal his or her emotional state.
Facial expressions, postures, and bodily movements serve as indicators of emotions.
3. Applying: Give an example (not used in the excerpt) of how a speaker can
reveal his or her emotional state.
Answers will vary. A man sitting hunched over with his hands over his face is revealing
sadness or despair through his posture.
4. Analyzing: If nonverbal communication is free of deception, is it possible to tell
a lie using body language?
In many situations, body language will reveal a verbal lie. However, speakers can
consciously alter their body language to deceive the listener.
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4 CHAPTER 2 Learning Style and Learning Strategies
DIRECTIONS Read “Communication Through Body Adornment,” in Part Five, Exercise 7
page 449. Then write two questions that require thinking at each of the levels we
have discussed (a total of 12 questions). • Answers will vary.
Sample answers provided
in Instructor’s Manual.
5. Evaluating: How is this information useful and important to me in a public
Nonverbal communication can aid in delivering your message, but can also reveal a
reluctance to speak in public. Awareness of nonverbal communication can help
speakers overcome those feelings and can improve performance and lead to more
confidence in public speaking.
6. Creating: To what extent is this information consistent with what I already
know about nonverbal messages?
Answers will vary.