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Integrating Educational Technology into Teaching, 8e (Roblyer/Hughes)
Chapter 2 Theory into Practice: Foundations for Transformative
2.1 Multiple Choice Items
1) What belief system is inquiry-based learning, in which learners generate their own
knowledge through their experiences and teachers serve only as facilitators, based on?
2) Which theorist believed that, while the ages at which children mature vary somewhat, all
children go through four stages of cognitive development that occur after certain neurological
A) Jean Piaget
B) B. F. Skinner
C) Jerome Bruner
D) Robert Gagné
3) Bandura’s theory holds that some students who are innately capable sometimes do not
learn because they lack this.
A) enactive learning
B) vicarious learning
4) Technology integration strategies that promote skill fluency or automaticity are based on
which kind of models?
5) What theory developed by John Dewey was based on the belief that social consciousness
was the ultimate aim of all education, and learning was useful only in the context of social
A) social activism
B) social scaffolding
C) discovery learning
D) situated cognition
6) What two kinds of instruments can teachers design or select during Phase 2 of the TTIPP
Model to assess changes in student attitudes resulting from a technology-enhanced lesson?
A) Likert scales and rubrics
B) Likert scales and semantic differentials
C) rubrics and semantic differentials
D) rubrics and observation checklists
7) Which of these is an important part of preparing an instructional environment for students
with special needs?
8) Which of the following is the focus of an integration strategy based primarily on directed
A) promote skill fluency or automaticity
B) foster creative problem solving and metacognition
C) foster group cooperation skills
D) generate motivation to learn
9) Which of the following is an example of a technology integration strategy that could help
facilitate either directed or constructivist models?
A) to foster creative problem solving
B) to support efficient, self-paced learning
C) to remove logistical hurdles to learning
D) to remedy identified weaknesses or deficits
10) Which kind of the following types of data collection would not help determine if a
technology integration strategy worked well?
A) achievement data
B) attitude data
C) student comments
D) response statistics
11) Which one of these learning theorists offered principles that could help inform
constructivist technology integration strategies?
A) B. F. Skinner
B) Jean Piaget
C) Robert Gagné
D) Benjamin Bloom
12) Which of the following is a typical technology integration strategy based on
constructivist learning models?
A) identifying skill weaknesses and targeting tutorial and drill software to them
B) letting students write papers with word processing rather than by hand
C) showing video-based problems that students solve through small group work
D) giving students a French language tutorial because a teacher is not available
13) Which two different approaches to integration must proficient technology-oriented
teachers learn to combine?
A) indirect and directed
B) directed and objectivist
C) inquiry-based and constructivist
D) directed and constructivist
14) Which of these learning theorists would help inform directed technology integration
A) Albert Bandura
B) Jean Piaget
C) Robert Gagné
D) Lev Vygotsky
15) What is the last step of the TTIPP model?
A) determine relative advantage
B) identify technology possibilities
C) share the lesson with others
D) assess POPs
2.2 Essay Questions
1) Suppose there is a student who has failed at learning mathematics skills and is very
unmotivated. What strategy would advocates of directed instruction suggest? What would
2) Describe why it’s important for teachers to assess the technological resources of students
3) Explain the differences in the R, A, and T categories in the RAT matrix.
4) Identify and describe a specific problem of practice (POP) and a technology possibility
you think might be able to contribute to solving the POP.
5) Explain what the “turn-around” part of the Turn-around Technology Integration Pedagogy
and Planning (TTIPP) model means in practice.
Chapter 2 Test Item Answer Key
Chapter 2 Multiple-choice Items
1. Correct Answer: D) constructivism
2. Correct Answer: A) Jean Piaget
3. Correct Answer: C) self-efficacy
4. Correct Answer: D) directed
5. Correct Answer: A) social activism
6. Correct Answer: B) Likert scales and semantic differentials
7. Correct Answer: B) UDL
8. Correct Answer: A) promote skill fluency or automaticity
9. Correct Answer: C) to remove logistical hurdles to learning
10. Correct Answer: D) response statistics
11. Correct Answer: B) Jean Piaget
12. Correct Answer: C) showing video-based problems that students solve through small group work
13. Correct Answer: D) directed and constructivist
14. Correct Answer: C) Robert Gagné
15. Correct Answer: C) share the lesson with others
Chapter 2 Essay Questions
1. Answers vary and include: For directed, try to identify gaps in prerequisite skills and target specific
remedial instruction delivered at the student’s own pace. For constructivist, engage the student in more
visually interesting tasks linked to topics that he can relate to from his own experience; let him build
knowledge based on these experiences.
2. Answers vary and include: Understanding your students’ and their parents’ digital capabilities and access
to technologies allows a teacher to design lessons that use the digital literacies students already possess or
anticipate what technological instruction will be necessary prior to teaching a specific technology-supported
3. Answers vary and include: Replacement (R) situates technology as a different means to the same
educational goal. Amplification (A) situates technology as a way to increase efficiency and intensify
productivity in relation to the same educational goals and processes. Transformation (T) situates technology
as a restructuring or reorganization of educational processes that enable change heretofore impossible.
4. Answers vary and include: Meaningful POPs may focus on disciplinary-specific knowledge, skills or
dispositions; the nature or frequency of learning activities for real-world relevancy and deep learning; the
role of students in learning; and observable indicators of a problem. POPs can be related to an instructional
or learning challenge. Technology possibilities will vary based on the identified POP.
5. Answers vary and include: In practice, turning around involves a process teachers can engage in to
explore their students’ lived experiences and identify how those experiences are assets for learning, to
investigate research-based perspectives on equity and learning, and to examine students’ learning
challenges in relation to the teacher’s current pedagogy that might not privilege all students’ capabilities,
knowledge, and interests. Once teachers engage in these activities, they are better positioned to turn toward
students by developing asset views of learners and revitalize their curriculum with new pedagogy that turns
students from disengagement to engagement.