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SOLUTION TO CODIFICATION EXERCISES
(a) The master glossary provides three definitions of fair value that are found in GAAP:
Fair Value—The amount at which an asset (or Liability) could be bought (or incurred) or settled in
a current transaction between willing parties, that is, other than in a forced or liquidation sale.
Fair Value—The fair value of an investment is the amount that the plan could reasonably expect to
receive for it in a current sale between a willing buyer and a willing seller, that is, other than in a
forced or liquidation sale. Fair value shall be measured by the market price if there is an active
market for the investment. If there is no active market for the investment but there is a market for
similar investments, selling prices in that market may be helpful in estimating fair value. If a market
price is not available, a forecast of expected cash flows, discounted at a rate commensurate with
the risk involved, may be used to estimate fair value. The fair value of an investment shall be
reported net of the brokerage commissions and other costs normally incurred in a sale.
Fair Value is the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an
orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date.
(b) Revenue—Revenue earned by an entity from its direct distribution, exploitation, or licensing of a
film, before deduction for any of the entity’s direct costs of distribution. For markets and territories
in which an entity’s fully or jointly-owned films are distributed by third parties, revenue is the net
amounts payable to the entity by third party distributors. Revenue is reduced by appropriate
allowances, estimated returns, price concessions, or similar adjustments, as applicable.
The glossary references a revenue definition for the SEC: (Revenue (SEC))—See paragraph
942-235-S599-1, Regulation S-X Rule 9-05(c)(2), for the definition of revenue for purposes of
Regulation S-X Rule 9-05.
This definition relates to segment reporting requirements for public companies.
(c) Comprehensive Income is defined as the change in equity (net assets) of a business entity during
a period from transactions and other events and circumstances from nonowner sources. It
includes all changes in equity during a period except those resulting from investments by owners
and distributions to owners.
The FASB Codification’s organization is closely aligned with the elements of financial statements, as
articulated in the Conceptual Framework. This is apparent in the lay-out of the “Browse” section, which
has primary links for Assets, Liabilities, Equity, Revenues, and Expenses.
Kieso, Intermediate Accounting, 14/e, Solutions Manual 2-5
The Importance of Industry Practices is reflected in the designation of several industries as top level
links in the Codification organization. There are separate links to sections for the following industries
(section numbers precede each name):
912 Contractors—Federal Government
915 Development Stage entities
922 Entertainment—Cable Television
930 Extractive Activities—Mining
932 Extractive Activities—Oil and Gas
940 Financial Services—Broker and Dealers
942 Financial Services—Depository and Lending
944 Financial Services—Insurance
946 Financial Services—Investment Companies
948 Financial Services—Mortgage Banking
950 Financial Services—Title Plant
954 Health Care Entities
956 Limited Liability Entities
958 Not-for-Profit Entities
960 Plan Accounting—Defined Benefit Pension Plans
962 Plan Accounting—Defined Contribution Pension Plans
965 Plan Accounting—Health and Welfare Benefit Plans
970 Real Estate—General
972 Real Estate—Common Interest Realty Associations
974 Real Estate—Real Estate Investment Trusts
976 Real Estate—Retail Land
978 Real Estate—Time-Sharing Activities
980 Regulated Operations
995 U.S. Steamship Entities
2-6 Kieso, Intermediate Accounting, 14/e, Solutions Manual
ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS
1. A conceptual framework is a coherent system of interrelated objectives and fundamentals that can
lead to consistent standards and that prescribes the nature, function, and limits of financial accounting and financial statements. A conceptual framework is necessary in financial accounting for the
(1) It will enable the FASB to issue more useful and consistent standards in the future.
(2) New issues will be more quickly solvable by reference to an existing framework of basic theory.
(3) It will increase financial statement users’ understanding of and confidence in financial reporting.
(4) It will enhance comparability among companies’ financial statements.
2. The basic objective is to provide financial information about the reporting entity that is useful to
present and potential equity investors, lenders, and other creditors in making decisions about
providing resources to the entity.
3. “Qualitative characteristics of accounting information” are those characteristics which contribute to
the quality or value of the information. The overriding qualitative characteristic of accounting information is usefulness for decision making.
4. Relevance and faithful representation are the two primary qualities of useful accounting information.
For information to be relevant, it should should be capable of making a difference in a decision by
helping users to form predictions about the outcomes of past, present, and future events or to
confirm or correct expectations. Faithful representation of a measure rests on whether the
numbers and descriptions matched what really existed or happened.
5. The concept of materiality refers to the relative significance of an amount, activity, or item to
informative disclosure and a proper presentation of financial position and the results of operations.
Materiality has qualitative and quantitative aspects; both the nature of the item and its relative size
enter into its evaluation.
An accounting misstatement is said to be material if knowledge of the misstatement will affect the
decisions of the average informed reader of the financial statements. Financial statements are
misleading if they omit a material fact or include so many immaterial matters as to be confusing. In
the examination, the auditor concentrates efforts in proportion to degrees of materiality and relative
risk and disregards immaterial items.
The relevant criteria for assessing materiality will depend upon the circumstances and the nature
of the item and will vary greatly among companies. For example, an error in current assets or
current liabilities will be more important for a company with a flow of funds problem than for one
with adequate working capital.
The effect upon net income (or earnings per share) is the most commonly used measure of
materiality. This reflects the prime importance attached to net income by investors and other users
of the statements. The effects upon assets and equities are also important as are misstatements
of individual accounts and subtotals included in the financial statements. The auditor will note the
effects of misstatements on key ratios such as gross profit, the current ratio, or the debt/equity
ratio and will consider such special circumstances as the effects on debt agreement covenants
and the legality of dividend payments.
Kieso, Intermediate Accounting, 14/e, Solutions Manual 2-7
Questions Chapter 2 (Continued)
There are no rigid standards or guidelines for assessing materiality. The lower bound of materiality
has been variously estimated at 5% to 20% of net income, but the determination will vary based
upon the individual case and might not fall within these limits. Certain items, such as a questionable
loan to a company officer, may be considered material even when minor amounts are involved. In
contrast a large misclassification among expense accounts may not be deemed material if there is
no misstatement of net income.
6. Enhancing qualities are qualitative characteristics that are complementary to the fundamental
qualitative characteristics. These characteristics distinguish more-useful information from lessuseful information. Enhancing characteristics are comparability, verifiability, timeliness, and
7. In providing information to users of financial statements, the Board relies on general-purpose
financial statements. The intent of such statements is to provide the most useful information
possible at minimal cost to various user groups. Underlying these objectives is the notion that
users need reasonable knowledge of business and financial accounting matters to understand
the information contained in financial statements. This point is important; it means that in the
preparation of financial statements a level of reasonable competence can be assumed; this has an
impact on the way and the extent to which information is reported.
8. Comparability facilitates comparisons between information about two different enterprises at a
particular point in time. Consistency, a type of comparability, facilitates comparisons between
information about the same enterprise at two different points in time.
9. At present, the accounting literature contains many terms that have peculiar and specific meanings.
Some of these terms have been in use for a long period of time, and their meanings have changed
over time. Since the elements of financial statements are the building blocks with which the
statements are constructed, it is necessary to develop a basic definitional framework for them.
10. Distributions to owners differ from expenses and losses in that they represent transfers to owners,
and they do not arise from activities intended to produce income. Expenses differ from losses in
that they arise from the entity’s ongoing major or central operations. Losses arise from peripheral
or incidental transactions.
11. Investments by owners differ from revenues and gains in that they represent transfers by owners
to the entity, and they do not arise from activities intended to produce income. Revenues differ
from gains in that they arise from the entity’s ongoing major or central operations. Gains arise from
peripheral or incidental transactions.
12. The four basic assumptions that underlie the financial accounting structure are:
(1) An economic entity assumption.
(2) A going concern assumption.
(3) A monetary unit assumption.
(4) A periodicity assumption.
13. (a) In accounting it is generally agreed that any measures of the success of an enterprise for
periods less than its total life are at best provisional in nature and subject to correction.
Measurement of progress and status for arbitrary time periods is a practical necessity to serve
those who must make decisions. It is not the result of postulating specific time periods as
measurable segments of total life.
2-8 Kieso, Intermediate Accounting, 14/e, Solutions Manual
Questions Chapter 2 (Continued)
(b) The practice of periodic measurement has led to many of the most difficult accounting problems such as inventory pricing, depreciation of long-term assets, and the necessity for
revenue recognition tests. The accrual system calls for associating related revenues and
expenses. This becomes very difficult for an arbitrary time period with incomplete transactions
in process at both the beginning and the end of the period. A number of accounting practices
such as adjusting entries or the reporting of corrections of prior periods result directly from
efforts to make each period’s calculations as accurate as possible and yet recognizing that
they are only provisional in nature.
14. The monetary unit assumption assumes that the unit of measure (the dollar) remains reasonably
stable so that dollars of different years can be added without any adjustment. When the value of
the dollar fluctuates greatly over time, the monetary unit assumption loses its validity.
The FASB in Concept No. 5 indicated that it expects the dollar unadjusted for inflation or deflation
to be used to measure items recognized in financial statements. Only if circumstances change
dramatically will the Board consider a more stable measurement unit.
15. Some of the arguments which might be used are outlined below:
(1) Cost is definite and reliable; other values would have to be determined somewhat arbitrarily
and there would be considerable disagreement as to the amounts to be used.
(2) Amounts determined by other bases would have to be revised frequently.
(3) Comparison with other companies is aided if cost is employed.
(4) The costs of obtaining replacement values could outweigh the benefits derived.
16. Fair value is defined as “the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a
liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date.” Fair value is
therefore a market-based measure.
17. The fair value option gives companies the option to use fair value (referred to as the fair value
option as the basis for measurement of financial assets and financial liabilities.) The Board believes
that fair value measurement for financial instruments provides more relevant and understandable
information than historical cost. It considers fair value to be more relevant because it reflects the
current cash equivalent value of financial instruments. As a result companies now have the option
to record fair value in their accounts for most financial instruments, including such items as
receivables, investments, and debt securities.
18. The fair value hierarchy provides insight into the priority of valuation techniques that are used to
determine fair value. The fair value hierarchy is divided into three broad levels.
Fair Value Hierarchy
Level 1: Observable inputs that reflect quoted prices for Least Subjective
identical assets or liabilities in active markets.
Level 2: Inputs other than quoted prices included in Level 1 that
are observable for the asset or liability either directly or
through corroboration with observable data.
Level 3: Unobservable inputs (for example, a company’s own
data or assumptions).
Kieso, Intermediate Accounting, 14/e, Solutions Manual 2-9
Questions Chapter 2 (Continued)
As indicated, Level 1 is the most reliable because it is based on quoted prices, like a closing stock
price in the Wall Street Journal. Level 2 is the next most reliable and would rely on evaluating
similar assets or liabilities in active markets. At the least-reliable level, Level 3, much judgment
is needed based on the best information available to arrive at a relevant and reliable fair value
19. Revenue is generally recognized when (1) realized or realizable, and (2) earned.
The adoption of the sale basis is the accountant’s practical solution to the extremely difficult
problem of measuring revenue under conditions of uncertainty as to the future. The revenue is
equal to the amount of cash that will be received due to the operations of the current accounting
period, but this amount will not be definitely known until such cash is collected. The accountant,
under these circumstances, insists on having “objective evidence,” that is, evidence external to the
firm itself, on which to base an estimate of the amount of cash that will be received. The sale is
considered to be the earliest point at which this evidence is available in the usual case. Until the
sale is made, any estimate of the value of inventory is based entirely on the opinion of the
management of the firm. When the sale is made, however, an outsider, the buyer, has corroborated
the estimate of management and a value can now be assigned based on this transaction. The sale
also leads to a valid claim against the buyer and gives the seller the full support of the law in
enforcing collection. In a highly developed economy where the probability of collection is high, this
gives additional weight to the sale in the determination of the amount to be collected. Ordinarily
there is a transfer of control as well as title at the sales point. This not only serves as additional
objective evidence but necessitates the recognition of a change in the nature of assets. The sale,
then, has been adopted because it provides the accountant with objective evidence as to the
amount of revenue that will be collected, subject of course to the bad debts estimated to determine
20. Revenues should be recognized when they are realized or realizable and earned. The most common
time at which these two conditions are met is when the product or merchandise is delivered or
services are rendered to customers. Therefore, revenue for Selane Eatery should be recognized at
the time the luncheon is served.
21. Revenues are realized when products (goods or services), merchandise, or other assets are exchanged for cash or claims to cash. Revenues are realizable when related assets received or held
are readily convertible to known amounts of cash or claims to cash. Readily convertible assets
have (1) interchangeable (fungible) units and (2) quoted prices available in an active market that
can rapidly absorb the quantity held by the entity without significantly affecting the price.
Realizable is illustrated when sales revenue is recorded upon receipt of an actively traded security
in exchange for inventory.
22. Each deviation depends on either the existence of earlier objective evidence other than the sale or
insufficient evidence of sale. Objective evidence is the key.
(a) In the case of installment sales the probability of uncollectibility may be great due to the nature
of the collection terms. The sale itself, therefore, does not give an accurate basis on which to
estimate the amount of cash that will be collected. It is necessary to adopt a basis which will
give a reasonably accurate estimate. The installment sales method is a modified cash basis;
income is recognized as cash is collected. A cash basis is preferable when no earlier estimate
of revenue is sufficiently accurate.
2-10 Kieso, Intermediate Accounting, 14/e, Solutions Manual
Questions Chapter 2 (Continued)
(b) The opposite is true in the case of certain agricultural products. Since there is a ready buyer
and a quoted price, a sale is not necessary to establish the amount of revenue to be received.
In fact, the sale is an insignificant part of the whole operation. As soon as it is harvested, the
crop can be valued at its selling price less the cost of transportation to the market and this
valuation gives an extremely accurate measure of the amount of revenue for the period without
the need of waiting until the sale has been made to measure it. In other words, the sale
proceeds are readily realizable and earned, so revenue recognition should occur.
(c) In the case of long-term contracts, the use of the “sales basis” would result in a distortion of
the periodic income figures. A shift to a “percentage of completion basis” is warranted if objective evidence of the amount of revenue earned in the periods prior to completion is available.
The accountant finds such evidence in the existence of a firm contract, from which the
ultimate realization can be determined, and estimates of total cost which can be compared
with cost incurred to estimate percentage-of-completion for revenue measurement purposes.
In general, when estimates of costs to complete and extent of progress toward completion of
long-term contracts are reasonably dependable, the percentage-of-completion method is
preferable to the completed-contract method.
23. The president means that the “gain” should be recorded in the books. This item should not be
entered in the accounts, however, because it has not been realized.
24. The cause and effect relationship can seldom be conclusively demonstrated, but many costs
appear to be related to particular revenues and recognizing them as expenses accompanies
recognition of the revenue. Examples of expenses that are recognized by associating cause and
effect are sales commissions and cost of products sold or services provided.
Systematic and rational allocation means that in the absence of a direct means of associating
cause and effect, and where the asset provides benefits for several periods, its cost should be
allocated to the periods in a systematic and rational manner. Examples of expenses that are
recognized in a systematic and rational manner are depreciation of plant assets, amortization of
intangible assets, and allocation of rent and insurance.
Some costs are immediately expensed because the costs have no discernible future benefits or
the allocation among several accounting periods is not considered to serve any useful purpose.
Examples include officers’ salaries, most selling costs, amounts paid to settle lawsuits, and costs
of resources used in unsuccessful efforts.
25. The four characteristics are:
(1) Definitions—The item meets the definition of an element of financial statements.
(2) Measurability—It has a relevant attribute measurable with sufficient reliability.
(3) Relevance—The information is capable of making a difference in user decisions.
(4) Reliability—The information is representationally faithful, verifiable, and neutral.
26. (a) To be recognized in the main body of financial statements, an item must meet the definition of
an element. In addition the item must have been measured, recorded in the books, and passed
through the double-entry system of accounting.
(b) Information provided in the notes to the financial statements amplifies or explains the items
presented in the main body of the statements and is essential to an understanding of the performance and position of the enterprise. Information in the notes does not have to be quantifiable, nor does it need to qualify as an element.
(c) Supplementary information includes information that presents a different perspective from that
adopted in the financial statements. It also includes management’s explanation of the financial
information and a discussion of the significance of that information.
Kieso, Intermediate Accounting, 14/e, Solutions Manual 2-11
Questions Chapter 2 (Continued)
27. The general guide followed with regard to the full disclosure principle is to disclose in the financial
statements any facts of sufficient importance to influence the judgment of an informed reader.
The fact that the amount of outstanding common stock doubled in January of the subsequent
reporting period probably should be disclosed because such a situation is of importance to present
stockholders. Even though the event occurred after December 31, 2012, it should be disclosed on
the balance sheet as of December 31, 2012, in order to make adequate disclosure. (The major
point that should be emphasized throughout the entire discussion on full disclosure is that there is
normally no “black” or “white” but varying shades of grey and it takes experience and good
judgment to arrive at an appropriate answer).
28. Accounting information is subject to the cost constraint. Information is not worth providing unless
the benefits exceed the costs of preparing it.
29. The costs of providing accounting information are paid primarily to highly trained accountants who
design and implement information systems, retrieve and analyze large amounts of data, prepare
financial statements in accordance with authoritative pronouncements, and audit the information
presented. These activities are time-consuming and costly. The benefits of providing accounting
information are experienced by society in general, since informed financial decisions help allocate
scarce resources to the most effective enterprises. Occasionally new accounting standards require
presentation of information that is not readily assembled by the accounting systems of most
companies. A determination should be made as to whether the incremental or additional costs of
providing the proposed information exceed the incremental benefits to be obtained. This determination requires careful judgment since the benefits of the proposed information may not be
30. (a) Acceptable if reasonably accurate estimation is possible. To the extent that warranty costs can
be estimated accurately, they should be matched against the related sales revenue.
(b) Not acceptable. Most accounts are collectible or the company will be out of business very soon.
Hence sales can be recorded when made. Also, other companies record sales when made
rather than when collected, so if accounts for Landowska Co. are to be compared with other
companies, they must be kept on a comparable basis. However, estimates for uncollectible
accounts should be recorded if there is a reasonably accurate basis for estimating bad debts.
(c) Not acceptable. A provision for the possible loss can be made through an appropriation of
retained earnings but until judgment has been rendered on the suit or it is otherwise settled,
entry of the loss usually represents anticipation. Recording it earlier is probably unwise legal
strategy as well. For the loss to be recognized at this point, the loss would have to be probable
and reasonably estimable. (See FASB ASC 450-10-05 for additional discussion if desired.)
Note disclosure is required if the loss is not recorded; however, conservatism is not part of the
(d) Acceptable because lower of cost or market is in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles.
2-12 Kieso, Intermediate Accounting, 14/e, Solutions Manual
SOLUTIONS TO BRIEF EXERCISES
BRIEF EXERCISE 2-1
(a) 5. Comparability
(b) 8. Timeliness
(c) 3. Predictive value
(d) 1. Relevance
(e) 7. Neutrality
BRIEF EXERCISE 2-2
(a) 5. Faithful representation
(b) 8. Confirmatory value
(c) 3. Free from error
(d) 2. Completeness
(e) 4. Understandability
BRIEF EXERCISE 2-3
(a) If the company changed its method for inventory valuation, the consistency, and therefore the comparability, of the financial statements have
been affected by a change in the method of applying the accounting
principles employed. The change would require comment in the auditor’s
report in an explanatory paragraph.
(b) If the company disposed of one of its two subsidiaries that had been
included in its consolidated statements for prior years, no comment as
to consistency needs to be made in the CPA’s audit report. The comparability of the financial statements has been affected by a business transaction, but there has been no change in any accounting principle
employed or in the method of its application. (The transaction would
probably require informative disclosure in the financial statements).
Kieso, Intermediate Accounting, 14/e, Solutions Manual 2-13
BRIEF EXERCISE 2-3 (continued)
(c) If the company reduced the estimated remaining useful life of plant
property because of obsolescence, the comparability of the financial
statements has been affected. The change is not a matter of consistency;
it is a change in accounting estimate required by altered conditions
and involves no change in accounting principles employed or in their
method of application. The change would probably be disclosed by a
note in the financial statements. If commented upon in the CPA’s
report, it would be as a matter of disclosure rather than consistency.
(d) If the company is using a different inventory valuation method from
all other companies in its industry, no comment as to consistency
need be made in the CPA’s audit report. Consistency refers to a given
company following consistent accounting principles from one period to
another; it does not refer to a company following the same accounting
principles as other companies in the same industry.
BRIEF EXERCISE 2-4
(c) Comparability (consistency)
BRIEF EXERCISE 2-5
Companies and their auditors for the most part have adopted the general
rule of thumb that anything under 5% of net income is considered not material.
Recently, the SEC has indicated that it is okay to use this percentage for
the initial assessment of materiality, but other factors must be considered.
For example, companies can no longer fail to record items in order to meet
consensus analyst’s earnings numbers, preserve a positive earnings trend,
convert a loss to a profit or vice versa, increase management compensation,
or hide an illegal transaction like a bribe. In other words, both quantitative
and qualitative factors must be considered in determining when an item is
(a) Because the change was used to create a positive trend in earnings,
the change is considered material.
2-14 Kieso, Intermediate Accounting, 14/e, Solutions Manual
BRIEF EXERCISE 2-5 (Continued)
(b) Each item must be considered separately and not netted. Therefore
each transaction is considered material.
(c) In general, companies that follow an “expense all capital items below
a certain amount” policy are not in violation of the materiality concept.
Because the same practice has been followed from year to year,
Damon’s actions are acceptable.
BRIEF EXERCISE 2-6
(h) Distributions to owners
(j) Investments by owners
BRIEF EXERCISE 2-7
(b) Monetary unit
(c) Going concern
(d) Economic entity
BRIEF EXERCISE 2-8
(a) Revenue recognition
(b) Expense recognition
(c) Full disclosure
(d) Historical cost
Kieso, Intermediate Accounting, 14/e, Solutions Manual 2-15
BRIEF EXERCISE 2-9
Investment 1—Level 3
Investment 2—Level 1
Investment 3—Level 2
BRIEF EXERCISE 2-10
(a) Industry practices
(b) Cost constraint
(c) Cost constraint
(d) Industry practices
BRIEF EXERCISE 2-11
(a) Net realizable value.
(b) Would not be disclosed. Liabilities would be disclosed in the order to
(c) Would not be disclosed. Depreciation would be inappropriate if the
going concern assumption no longer applies.
(d) Net realizable value.
(e) Net realizable value (i.e., redeemable value).
BRIEF EXERCISE 2-12
(a) Full disclosure
(b) Expense recognition
(c) Historical cost
2-16 Kieso, Intermediate Accounting, 14/e, Solutions Manual
BRIEF EXERCISE 2-13
(a) Should be debited to the Land account, as it is a cost incurred in acquiring land.
(b) As an asset, preferably to a Land Improvements account. The driveway
will last for many years, and therefore it should be capitalized and
(c) Probably an asset, as it will last for a number of years and therefore
will contribute to operations of those years.
(d) If the fiscal year ends December 31, this will all be an expense of the
current year that can be charged to an expense account. If statements
are to be prepared on some date before December 31, part of this cost
would be expense and part asset. Depending upon the circumstances,
the original entry as well as the adjusting entry for statement purposes
should take the statement date into account.
(e) Should be debited to the Building account, as it is a part of the cost of
that plant asset which will contribute to operations for many years.
(f) As an expense, as the service has already been received; the contribution to operations occurred in this period.
Kieso, Intermediate Accounting, 14/e, Solutions Manual 2-17
SOLUTIONS TO EXERCISES
EXERCISE 2-1 (15–20 minutes)
(b) False – General-purpose financial reports helps users who lack the
ability to demand all the financial information they need from an entity
and therefore must rely, at least partly, on the information in financial
(c) False – Standard-setting that is based on personal conceptual frameworks will lead to different conclusions about identical or similar
issues. As a result, standards will not be consistent with one another,
and past decisions may not be indicative of future ones.
(d) False – Information that is decision-useful to capital providers may
also be useful to users of financial reporting who are not capital
(e) False – An implicit assumption is that users need reasonable knowledge of business and financial accounting matters to understand the
information contained in the financial statements.
EXERCISE 2-2 (15–20 minutes)
(a) False – The fundamental qualitative characteristics that make accounting information useful are relevance and faithful representation.
(b) False – Relevant information must also be material.
(c) False – Information that is relevant is characterized as having predictive
or confirmatory value.
(d) False – Comparability also refers to comparisons of a firm over time
(e) False – Enhancing characteristics relate to both relevance and faithful
2-18 Kieso, Intermediate Accounting, 14/e, Solutions Manual
EXERCISE 2-3 (20–30 minutes)
(a) Confirmatory Value. (f) Relevance and Faithful
(b) Cost Constraint. (g) Timeliness.
(c) Neutrality. (h) Relevance.
(d) Comparability (Consistency). (i) Comparability.
(e) Neutrality. (j) Verifiability.
EXERCISE 2-4 (15–20 minutes)
(a) Comparability. (g) Comparability, Verifiability,
Timeliness, and Understability.
(b) Confirmatory Value. (h) Materiality.
(c) Comparability (Consistency). (i) Faithful representation.
(d) Neutrality. (j) Relevance and Faithful
(e) Verifiability. (k) Timeliness.
EXERCISE 2-5 (15–20 minutes)
(a) Gains, losses.
(c) Investments by owners, comprehensive income.
(also possible would be revenues and gains).
(d) Distributions to owners.
(Note to instructor: net effect is to reduce equity and assets).
(e) Comprehensive income.
(also possible would be revenues and gains).
(g) Comprehensive income.
(h) Revenues, expenses.
(k) Distributions to owners.
(l) Comprehensive income.
Kieso, Intermediate Accounting, 14/e, Solutions Manual 2-19
EXERCISE 2-6 (15–20 minutes)
(a) 7. Expense recognition principle.
(b) 5. Historical cost principle.
(c) 8. Full disclosure principle.
(d) 2. Going concern assumption.
(e) 1. Economic entity assumption.
(f) 4. Periodicity assumption.
(g) 10. Industry practices.
(h) 3. Monetary unit assumption.
EXERCISE 2-7 (20–25 minutes)
(j) Revenue and expense recognition principles.
(k) Economic entity assumption.
(l) Periodicity assumption.
(m) Expense recognition principle.
(n) Historical cost principle.
(o) Expense recognition principle.
Historical cost principle.
Full disclosure principle.
Expense recognition principle.
Industry practices or fair value
Economic entity assumption.
Full disclosure principle.
Revenue recognition principle.
Full disclosure principle.
(a) It is well established in accounting that revenues, cost of goods sold
and expenses must be disclosed in an income statement. It might be
noted to students that such was not always the case. At one time, only
net income was reported but over time we have evolved to the present
(b) The proper accounting for this situation is to report the equipment as
an asset and the notes payable as a liability on the balance sheet.
Offsetting is permitted in only limited situations where certain assets
are contractually committed to pay off liabilities.
2-20 Kieso, Intermediate Accounting, 14/e, Solutions Manual
EXERCISE 2-8 (Continued)
(c) According to GAAP, the basis upon which inventory amounts are stated
(lower of cost or market) and the method used in determining cost (LIFO,
FIFO, average cost, etc.) should also be reported. The disclosure
requirement related to the method used in determining cost should be
emphasized, indicating that where possible alternatives exist in financial
reporting, disclosure in some format is required.
(d) Consistency requires that disclosure of changes in accounting principles be made in the financial statements. To do otherwise would result
in financial statements that are misleading. Financial statements are
more useful if they can be compared with similar reports for prior years.
(a) This entry violates the economic entity assumption. This assumption
in accounting indicates that economic activity can be identified with a
particular unit of accountability. In this situation, the company erred
by charging this cost to the wrong economic entity.
(b) The historical cost principle indicates that assets and liabilities are
accounted for on the basis of cost. If we were to select sales value,
for example, we would have an extremely difficult time in attempting
to establish a sales value for a given item without selling it. It should
further be noted that the revenue recognition principle provides the
answer to when revenue should be recognized. Revenue should be
recognized when (1) realized or realizable and (2) earned. In this situation,
an earnings process has definitely not taken place.
(c) The company is too conservative in its accounting for this transaction.
The expense recognition principle indicates that expenses should be
allocated to the appropriate periods involved. In this case, there
appears to be a high uncertainty that the company will have to pay.
FASB Statement No. 5 requires that a loss should be accrued only
(1) when it is probable that the company would lose the suit and
(2) the amount of the loss can be reasonably estimated. (Note to
instructor: The student will probably be unfamiliar with FASB Statement
No. 5. The purpose of this question is to develop some decision
framework when the probability of a future event must be assessed).
Kieso, Intermediate Accounting, 14/e, Solutions Manual 2-21
EXERCISE 2-9 (Continued)
(d) At the present time, accountants do not recognize price-level adjustments in the accounts. Hence, it is misleading to deviate from the
historical cost principle because conjecture or opinion can take place.
It should also be noted that depreciation is not so much a matter of
valuation as it is a means of cost allocation. Assets are not depreciated
on the basis of a decline in their fair market value, but are depreciated
on the basis of systematic charges of expired costs against revenues.
(Note to instructor: It might be called to the students’ attention that
the FASB does encourage supplemental disclosure of price-level
(e) Most accounting methods are based on the assumption that the business enterprise will have a long life. Acceptance of this assumption
provides credibility to the historical cost principle, which would be of
limited usefulness if liquidation were assumed. Only if we assume some
permanence to the enterprise is the use of depreciation and amortization
policies justifiable and appropriate. Therefore, it is incorrect to assume
liquidation as Gonzales, Inc. has done in this situation. It should be
noted that only where liquidation appears imminent is the going concern
(f) The answer to this situation is the same as (b).
(a) Depreciation is an allocation of cost, not an attempt to value assets.
As a consequence, even if the value of the building is increasing,
costs related to this building should be matched with revenues on the
income statement, not as a charge against retained earnings.
(b) A gain should not be recognized until the inventory is sold. Accountants generally follow the historical cost approach and write-ups of
assets are not permitted. It should also be noted that the revenue
recognition principle states that revenue should not be recognized
until it is realized or realizable and is earned.
2-22 Kieso, Intermediate Accounting, 14/e, Solutions Manual
EXERCISE 2-10 (Continued)
(c) Assets should be recorded at the fair market value of what is given up
or the fair market value of what is received, whichever is more clearly
evident. It should be emphasized that it is not a violation of the
historical cost principle to use the fair market value of the stock.
Recording the asset at the par value of the stock has no conceptual
validity. Par value is merely an arbitrary amount usually set at the
date of incorporation.
(d) The gain should be recognized at the point of sale. Deferral of the gain
should not be permitted, as it is realized and is earned. To explore this
question at greater length, one might ask what justification other than
the controller’s might be used to justify the deferral of the gain. For
example, the rationale provided in GAAP, non-completion of the earnings
process, might be discussed.
(e) It appears from the information that the sale should be recorded in
2013 instead of 2012. Regardless of whether the terms are f.o.b.
shipping point or f.o.b. destination, the point is that the inventory was
sold in 2013. It should be noted that if the company is employing a
perpetual inventory system in dollars and quantities, a debit to Cost
of Goods Sold and a credit to Inventory is also necessary in 2013.
Kieso, Intermediate Accounting, 14/e, Solutions Manual 2-23
TIME AND PURPOSE OF CONCEPTS FOR ANALYSIS
CA 2-1 (Time 20–25 minutes)
Purpose—to provide the student with the opportunity to comment on the purpose of the conceptual
framework. In addition, a discussion of the Concepts Statements issued by the FASB is required.
CA 2-2 (Time 25–35 minutes)
Purpose—to provide the student with the opportunity to identify and discuss the benefits of the conceptual framework. In addition, the most important quality of information must be discussed, as well as
other key characteristics of accounting information.
CA 2-3 (Time 25–35 minutes)
Purpose—to provide the student with some familiarity with the Conceptual Framework. The student is
asked to indicate the broad objectives of accounting, and to discuss how this statement might help to
establish accounting standards.
CA 2-4 (Time 30–35 minutes)
Purpose—to provide the student with some familiarity with the Conceptual Framework. The student is
asked to describe various characteristics of useful accounting information and to identify possible tradeoffs among these characteristics.
CA 2-5 (Time 25–30 minutes)
Purpose—to provide the student with the opportunity to indicate and discuss different points at which
revenues can be recognized. The student is asked to discuss the “crucial event” that triggers revenue
CA 2-6 (Time 30–35 minutes)
Purpose—to provide the student with familiarity with an economic concept of income as opposed to the
GAAP approach. Also, factors to be considered in determining when net revenue should be recognized
CA 2-7 (Time 20–25 minutes)
Purpose—to provide the student with an opportunity to assess different points to report costs as
expenses. Direct cause and effect, indirect cause and effect, and rational and systematic approaches
CA 2-8 (Time 20–25 minutes)
Purpose—to provide the student with familiarity with the expense recognition principle in accounting.
Specific items are then presented to indicate how these items might be reported using the expense
CA 2-9 (Time 20–30 minutes)
Purpose—to provide the student with a realistic case involving association of costs with revenues. The
advantages of expensing costs as incurred versus spreading costs are examined. Specific guidance is
asked on how allocation over time should be reported.
CA 2-10 (Time 20–30 minutes)
Purpose—to provide the student with the opportunity to discuss the relevance and faithful
representation of financial statement information. The student must write a letter on this matter so the
case does provide a good writing exercise for the students.
CA 2-11 (Time 20–25 minutes)
Purpose—to provide the student with the opportunity to discuss the ethical issues related to expense
CA 2-12 (Time 30–35 minutes)
Purpose—to provide the student with the opportunity to discuss the cost constraint.
2-24 Kieso, Intermediate Accounting, 14/e, Solutions Manual
SOLUTIONS TO CONCEPTS FOR ANALYSIS
(a) A conceptual framework is like a constitution. Its objective is to provide a coherent system of
interrelated objectives and fundamentals that can lead to consistent standards and that prescribes
the nature, function, and limits of financial accounting and financial statements.
A conceptual framework is necessary so that standard setting is useful, i.e., standard setting
should build on and relate to an established body of concepts and objectives. A well-developed
conceptual framework should enable the FASB to issue more useful and consistent standards in
Specific benefits that may arise are:
(1) A coherent set of standards and rules should result.
(2) New and emerging practical problems should be more quickly soluble by reference to an
(3) It should increase financial statement users’ understanding of and confidence in financial reporting.
(4) It should enhance comparability among companies’ financial statements.
(5) It should help determine the bounds for judgment in preparing financial statements.
(6) It should provide guidance to the body responsible for establishing accounting standards.
(b) The FASB has issued eight Statements of Financial Accounting Concepts (SFAC) that relate to
business enterprises. Their titles and brief description of the focus of each Statement are as follows:
(1) SFAC No. 1, “Objectives of Financial Reporting by Business Enterprises,” presents the goals
and purposes of accounting.
(2) SFAC No. 2, “Qualitative Characteristics of Accounting Information,” examines the characteristics that make accounting information useful.
(3) SFAC No. 3, “Elements of Financial Statements of Business Enterprises,” provides definitions
of the broad classifications of items in financial statements.
(4) SFAC No. 5, “Recognition and Measurement in Financial Statements,” sets forth fundamental
recognition and measurement criteria and guidance on what information should be formally
incorporated into financial statements and when.
(5) SFAC No. 6, “Elements of Financial Statements,” replaces SFAC No. 3, “Elements of Financial
Statements of Business Enterprises,” and expands its scope to include not-for-profit organizations.
(6) SFAC No. 7, “Using Cash Flow Information and Present Value in Accounting Measurements,”
provides a framework for using expected future cash flows and present values as a basis for
(7) SFAC No. 8, Chapter 1, “The Objective of General Purpose Financial Reporting,” and Chapter 3,
“Qualitative Characteristics of Useful Financial Information,” replaces SFAC No. 1 and No. 2.
(a) FASB’s Conceptual Framework should provide benefits to the accounting community such as:
(1) guiding the FASB in establishing accounting standards on a consistent basis.
(2) determining bounds for judgment in preparing financial statements by prescribing the nature,
functions and limits of financial accounting and reporting.
(3) increasing users’ understanding of and confidence in financial reporting.
Kieso, Intermediate Accounting, 14/e, Solutions Manual 2-25
CA 2-2 (Continued)
(b) The most important quality for accounting information as usefulness for decision making. Relevance
and faithful representation are the primary qualities leading to this decision usefulness. Usefulness is
the most important quality because, without usefulness, there would be no benefits from information
to set against its costs.
(c) There are a number of key characteristics or qualities that make accounting information desirable.
The importance of three of these characteristics or qualities is discussed below.
(1) Understandability—information provided by financial reporting should be comprehensible to
those who have a reasonable understanding of business and economic activities and are
willing to study the information with reasonable diligence. Financial information is a tool and,
like most tools, cannot be of much direct help to those who are unable or unwilling to use it, or
who misuse it.
(2) Relevance—the accounting information is capable of making a difference in a decision by
helping users to form predictions about the outcomes of past, present, and future events or to
confirm or correct expectations (including is material).
(3) Faithful representation—the faithful representation of a measure rests on whether the
numbers and descriptions matched what really existed or happened, including completeness,
neutrality, and free from error.
(Note to instructor: Other qualities might be discussed by the student, such as enhancing qualities. All
of these qualities are defined in the textbook).
(a) The basic objective is to provide financial information about the reporting entity that is useful to
present and potential equity investors, lenders, and other creditors in making decisions about
providing resources to the entity.
(b) The purpose of this statement is to set forth fundamentals on which financial accounting and
reporting standards may be based. Without some basic set of objectives that everyone can agree
to, inconsistent standards will be developed. For example, some believe that accountability should
be the primary objective of financial reporting. Others argue that prediction of future cash flows is
more important. It follows that individuals who believe that accountability is the primary objective
may arrive at different financial reporting standards than others who argue for prediction of cash
flow. Only by establishing some consistent starting point can accounting ever achieve some
underlying consistency in establishing accounting principles.
It should be emphasized to the students that the Board itself is likely to be the major user and thus
the most direct beneficiary of the guidance provided by this pronouncement. However, knowledge
of the objectives and concepts the Board uses should enable all who are affected by or interested
in financial accounting standards to better understand the content and limitations of information
provided by financial accounting and reporting, thereby furthering their ability to use that
information effectively and enhancing confidence in financial accounting and reporting. That
knowledge, if used with care, may also provide guidance in resolving new or emerging problems of
financial accounting and reporting in the absence of applicable authoritative pronouncements.
2-26 Kieso, Intermediate Accounting, 14/e, Solutions Manual
(a) (1) Relevance is one of the two primary decision-specific characteristics of useful accounting
information. Relevant information is capable of making a difference in a decision. Relevant
information helps users to make predictions about the outcomes of past, present, and future
events, or to confirm or correct prior expectations. Information must also be timely in order to
be considered relevant.
(2) Faithful representation is one of the two primary decision-specific characteristics of useful
accounting information. Reliable information can be depended upon to represent the conditions
and events that it is intended to represent. Representational faithfulness is correspondence or
agreement between accounting information and the economic phenomena it is intended to
represent stemming from completeness, neutrality, and free from error.
(3) Understandability is a user-specific characteristic of information. Information is understandable
when it permits reasonably informed users to perceive its significance. Understandability is a
link between users, who vary widely in their capacity to comprehend or utilize the information,
and the decision-specific qualities of information.
(4) Comparability means that information about enterprises has been prepared and presented in a
similar manner. Comparability enhances comparisons between information about two different
enterprises at a particular point in time.
(5) Consistency means that unchanging policies and procedures have been used by an enterprise
from one period to another. Consistency enhances comparisons between information about the
same enterprise at two different points in time.
(b) (Note to instructor: There are a multitude of answers possible here. The suggestions below are
intended to serve as examples).
(1) Forecasts of future operating results and projections of future cash flows may be highly relevant
to some decision makers. However, they would not be as free from error as historical cost
information about past transactions.
(2) Proposed new accounting methods may be more relevant to many decision makers than existing methods. However, if adopted, they would impair consistency and make trend comparisons
of an enterprise’s results over time difficult or impossible.
(3) There presently exists much diversity among acceptable accounting methods and procedures.
In order to facilitate comparability between enterprises, the use of only one accepted accounting method for a particular type of transaction could be required. However, consistency would
be impaired for those firms changing to the new required methods.
(4) Occasionally, relevant information is exceedingly complex. Judgment is required in determining
the optimum trade-off between relevance and understandability. Information about the impact of
general and specific price changes may be highly relevant but not understandable by all users.
(c) Although trade-offs result in the sacrifice of some desirable quality of information, the overall result
should be information that is more useful for decision making.
(a) The various accepted times of recognizing revenue in the accounts are as follows:
(1) Time of sale. This time is currently acceptable when the costs and expenses related to the
particular transaction are reasonably determinable at the time of sale and when the collection
of the sales price is reasonably certain.
Kieso, Intermediate Accounting, 14/e, Solutions Manual 2-27
CA 2-5 (Continued)
(2) At completion. This time is currently acceptable in extractive industries where the salability of
the product at a quoted price is likely and in the agricultural industry where there is a quoted
price for the product and only Iow additional costs of delivery to the market remain.
(3) During production. This time is currently acceptable when the revenue is known from the
contract and total cost can be estimated to determine percentage of completion.
(4) At collection. This time is currently acceptable when collections are received in installments,
when there are substantial “after costs” that unless anticipated would have the effect of
overstating income on a sales basis in the period of sale, and when collection risks are high.
(b) (1) The “crucial event”–that is, the most difficult task in the cycle of a complete transaction–in the
process of earning revenue may or may not coincide with the rendering of service to the
subscriber. The new director suggests that they do not coincide in the magazine business and
that revenue from subscription sales and advertising should be recognized in the accounts
when the difficult task of selling is accomplished and not when the magazines are published to
fill the subscriptions or to carry the advertising.
The director’s view that there is a single crucial event in the process of earning revenue in the
magazine business is questionable even though the amount of revenue is determinable when
the subscription is sold. Although the firm cannot prosper without good advertising contracts and
while advertising rates depend substantially on magazine sales, it also is true that readers will
not renew their subscriptions unless the content of the magazine pleases them. Unless subscriptions are obtained at prices that provide for the recovery in the first subscription period of all
costs of selling and filling those subscriptions, the editorial and publishing activities are as crucial
as the sale in the earning of the revenue. Even if the subscription rate does provide for the
recovery of all associated costs within the first period, however, the editorial and publishing
activities still would be important since the firm has an obligation (in the amount of the present
value of the costs expected to be incurred in connection with the editorial and publication
activities) to produce and deliver the magazine. Not until this obligation is fulfilled should the
revenue associated with it be recognized in the accounts since the revenue is the result of
accomplishing two difficult economic tasks (selling and filling subscriptions) and not just the first
one. The director’s view also presumes that the cost of publishing the magazines can be
computed accurately at or close to the time of the subscription sale despite uncertainty about
possible changes in the prices of the factors of production and variations in efficiency. Hence,
only a portion–not most–of the revenue should be recognized in the accounts at the time the
subscription is sold.
(2) Recognizing in the accounts all the revenue in equal portions with the publication of the
magazine every month is subject to some of the same criticism from the standpoint of theory
as the suggestion that all or most of the revenue be recognized in the accounts at the time the
subscription is sold. Although the journalistic efforts of the magazine are important in the process of earning revenue, the firm could not prosper without magazine sales and the advertising
that results from paid circulation. Hence, some revenue should be recognized in the accounts
at the time of the subscription sale.
This alternative, even though it does not recognize revenue in the accounts quite as fast as it is
earned, is preferable to the first alternative because a greater proportion of the process of
earning revenue is associated with the monthly publication of the magazine than with the
subscription sale. For this reason, and because the task of estimating the amount of revenue
associated with the subscription sale often has been considered subjective, recognizing
revenue in the accounts with the monthly publication of the magazine has received support
even though it does not meet the tests of revenue recognition as well as the next alternative.