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2. Writing in and out of College
CHAPTER 10. CRITICAL THINKING AND READING
Exercise 10.1, p. 85
Previewing an essay
Exercise 10.2, p. 89
Exercise 10.3, p. 91
As their support of the government’s student loan program illustrates,
politicians ignore the economic reality that using resources to benefit one group
(students in debt) involves taking the resources from another group (taxpayers).
Students’ average debt is not even that high, and college graduates can afford to
pay it off. The greatest attention is paid to the graduate with a large debt, but the
law also allows affluent students to borrow, even if their parents profit and the
students drop out of school or waste time there. Funded by taxpayers, the loan
program has contributed to declining educational standards, rising tuitions, and
rising professors’ salaries. Taxpayers should balk at funding the program further.
Exercise 10.4, p. 94
Reading an essay critically
Exercise 10.5, p. 99
Viewing a visual critically
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6 Exercise 11.1
CHAPTER 11. ACADEMIC WRITING
Exercise 11.1, p. 108
Using academic language
The stereotype that women talk more on cell phones than men do turns out to
be false. In a five-year survey of 1021 cell phone owners, a major wireless company
found that men spend 35% more time on their phones. They talk an average of
571 minutes a month compared to women’s average of 424 minutes a month.
Women do talk more on land lines than men do, but that difference is declining.
Exercise 11.2, p. 111
Writing critically about a text
Exercise 11.3, p. 111
Writing critically about a visual
CHAPTER 12. WRITING ARGUMENTS
Exercise 12.1, p. 112
Testing argument subjects
Subjects that are not appropriate for argument:
2. A matter of facts, and few people would disagree.
4. A matter of facts, and few people would disagree.
8. A matter of personal preference.
9. A matter of facts.
10. A matter of personal belief.
Exercise 12.2, p. 113
Conceiving a thesis statement
Thesis statements for appropriate subjects in Exercise 12.1:
1. An athletic scholarship should be what the term implies: an award to one
who is both a superior athlete and a superior scholar.
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3. Although censoring the Web sites of hate groups might offer some
protection to persecuted groups or individuals, such censorship would be far
too costly to free speech.
5. Until the city can construct private housing for the homeless, it must do
more to make public shelters safe and clean.
6. Billboards help to destabilize urban neighborhoods by creating the
impression that the neighborhoods are mere roadways.
7. Humane testing methods are adequate enough that cosmetics companies do
not have to abuse animals in testing.
Exercise 12.3, p. 119
The unreasonable generalizations from the given evidence are statements 2 (can’t
be inferred from the facts), 3 (contradicted by the facts), and 5 (can’t be inferred
from the facts).
Exercise 12.4, p. 119
*1. Premise: Anyone who has opposed pollution controls may continue to do so.
Premise: The mayor has opposed pollution controls.
Conclusion: The mayor may continue to do so.
The statement is valid and true.
*2. Premise: Corporate Web sites are sponsored by for-profit entities.
Premise: Information from for-profit entities is unreliable.
Conclusion: Information on corporate Web sites is unreliable.
The statement is untrue because the second premise is untrue.
3. Premise: Many good artists trained at Parsons.
Premise: Schroeder trained at Parsons.
Conclusion: Schroeder is a good artist.
The statement is invalid because the first premise does not necessarily
apply to the second.
4. Premise: Those who use their resources to help others deserve our
Premise: Some wealthy athletes use their resources to help others.
Conclusion: Some wealthy athletes deserve our particular appreciation.
The statement is valid and, if the first premise is accepted, true.
5. Premise: Any employer who has hired only one woman is sexist.
Premise: Jimson is an employer who has hired only one woman.
Conclusion: Jimson is sexist.
The statement is untrue because the first premise is not true: there
may be other reasons besides sexism for hiring only one woman.
Exercise 12.4 7
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8 Exercise 12.5
Exercise 12.5, p. 120
*1. Primarily emotional appeal. Ethical appeal: knowledgeable, concerned,
reasonable (at least in the two uses of may), slightly sarcastic (most essential
*2. Primarily rational appeal. Ethical appeal: knowledgeable, reasonable.
3. Primarily rational appeal. Ethical appeal: knowledgeable, fair, willing to
acknowledge opposing views.
4. Primarily emotional appeal. Ethical appeal: sympathetic toward animals (but
perhaps unfair to so-called scientists).
5. Primarily rational appeal. Ethical appeal: knowledgeable, fair, willing to
acknowledge opposing views.
Exercise 12.6, p. 124
Identifying and revising fallacies
*1. Sweeping generalization and begged question.
A revision: A successful marriage demands a degree of maturity.
*2. Hasty generalization and non sequitur.
A revision: Students’ persistent complaints about the unfairness of the grading
system should be investigated.
*3. Reductive fallacy.
A revision: The United States got involved in World War II for many
complex reasons. The bombing of Pearl Harbor was a triggering incident.
*4. Either/or fallacy and hasty generalization.
A revision: People watch television for many reasons, but some watch because
they are too lazy to talk or read or because they want mindless escape from
*5. Reductive fallacy and begged question.
A revision: Racial tension may occur when people with different backgrounds
live side by side.
6. Sweeping generalization and begged question (of the possibility/likelihood
that emerged nations can/will convert nuclear energy to nuclear bombs).
A revision: If they are allowed to have it for creating energy, some emerging
nations might put nuclear technology to work in bombs.
7. Post hoc fallacy.
A revision: My cousin’s experience of blacking out three times after climbing
Pikes Peak once again shows that more research is needed into the
aftereffects of mountain climbing.
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Exercise 12.6 9
8. Either/or fallacy.
A revision: Failing to promote democracy throughout the Middle East could
weaken American influence in the region.
9. Non sequitur.
A revision: She admits to being an atheist, so how could she be a good
Sunday school teacher?
10. Begged question.
A revision: For most teenagers, who are vulnerable to peer pressure and
inexperienced with sex, abstinence is a better choice than contraceptives.
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