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Chapter 2: Methods and Sources of Assessment Information
Assessment Methods and Sources
Formal and Informal Assessment Instruments and Strategies
The Initial Interview
Degrees of Structure in Interviews
Categories of Tests
Area of Assessment
Standardized and Non-Standardized Tests
Individual and Group Tests
Maximum-Performance and Typical-Performance Tests
Verbal and Nonverbal Tests
Objective and Subjective Tests
Participants in the Testing Process
Formal versus Informal Observation
Direct versus Indirect Observation
Natural or Contrived Settings
Unobtrusive versus Participant Observation
Methods of Recording Observations
Questions for Discussion
Multiple Choice Questions
1. The primary purpose of an interview is to
a. help reduce a client’s emotional distress
b. promote behavior change
c. work through crises
d. obtain relevant information and determine the interviewee’s problem
2. Which of the following is true about an unstructured interview?
a. The interviewer is free to ask questions about whatever he or she feels is relevant
b. The interview does not follow an agenda
c. It has strong reliability and validity
d. It relies on a set of specified questions
3. Which of the following is an important guideline for a successful interview?
a. Describe confidentiality and the limits of confidentiality within the interview
b. Be alert to nonverbal behavior
c. Ask open-ended questions first
d. all of the above
4. Which of the following is the most frequent type of interview used by practicing counselors?
5. Karen is a mental health counseling student who is working on a research project with one of her professors.
As part of this research, she is required to interview prospective participants. Karen has a list of fifteen
specific questions that she must ask in the same order with each participant. What type of interview is Karen
most likely using?
6. A test that measures and individual’s verbal ability, abstract reasoning, and memory would be best described
a. personality test
b. achievement test
c. intelligence test
d. aptitude test
7. The most thorough way that counselors should assess an individual is by using
a. standardized tests
d. multiple methods
8. Which of the following is the best example of a nonstandardized test?
a. a multiple-choice test created by a teacher to assess how well her students learned the material covered
throughout the semester
b. an intelligence test used to assess for gifted placement in schools
c. the Graduate Record Exam (GRE) used for admission to graduate school
d. a well-researched depression inventory (e.g., Beck Depression Inventory) used to assess for depression in
9. _________________________ tests are used to appraise some aspect of a person’s knowledge, skills, or
10. An ______________________ contains selected-response items, each of which contains a single correct or
11. Tests that are non-evaluative are most likely to measure an individual’s?
12. Which of the following is most likely to be concerned with using the results of a test to make clinical
a. test user
b. test developer
c. test reviewer
d. test publisher
13. An agency director who is concerned with the agency’s budget is most likely to consult the _______ when
evaluating the cost of a specific test?
a. research literature
b. test manual
c. test references
d. test publisher’s catalogue
14. Which of the following is NOT an advantage of a computer-based test?
a. It can be used by all test takers
b. It is cost-effective
c. It has a flexible administration schedule
d. It provides immediate scoring and results interpretation
15. Sue, a school counselor is observing a student’s behavior in the classroom. She is monitoring how often the
student gets out of his seat while working on a class activity. In order to record this behavior, Sue makes a
check mark on a tally sheet and counts how many times the student got out of his seat. Which observation
recording method is Sue using?
a. duration recording
b. time sampling
c. event recording
16. When a test accurately measures what it is intended to measure it is said to have sound
17. While selecting a test to use in his private practice, Kent discovered that a particular test was not very
consistent or stable over time. In other words, a test-taker’s score varied each time he or she took it. Kent can
most likely infer that:
a. the test is biased
b. the test has a poor evidence of validity
c. the test makers did not use an appropriate norming sample
d. the test has poor evidence of reliability
18. Evadne, a teacher at an elementary school is completing a rating scale for one her students. The teacher has
often complained about the student to the school counselor, leaving a bad impression about the student on the
school counselor. Which of the following rating scale errors is most likely to occur?
b. negative halo
c. social desirability
d. response deviance
19. All of the following are forms of collateral sources of information except:
b. rating scale completed by a parent
c. school records
d. interview with a teacher
20. Jacqueline, a school psychologist, is observing a child in his classroom. Jacqueline is completing a structured
checklist of the child’s disruptive behaviors while the child is interacting with peers. What best describes the
type of observation Jacqueline is doing?
a. direct, naturalistic, and obtrusive
b. direct, naturalistic, and unobtrusive
c. direct, contrived, and unobtrusive
d. direct, contrived, and obtrusive
Chapter 2 Essay Questions
1. Discuss the different categories of interviews. Describe some of the advantages and disadvantages of each
2. Discuss some of the purposes of using tests in assessment. Provide examples of situations where testing may
3. Imagine that you are working in your future profession. In what situation might you conduct an observation.
Describe a hypothetical observation and the observation method you would use.
4. Identify and describe the three primary sources of collateral information. Give examples of each source.
Describe a situation that illustrates the use of collateral information in the assessment process.