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True / False Questions
1. Auditors may be independent in fact but not independent in appearance.
2. Auditing Standards issued by the PCAOB are the sole source of guidance for
audits of public entities.
3. Attestation standards provide guidance for a wide variety of engagements
different in scope than an audit.
4. Generally accepted auditing standards must be followed on all audit
5. The reporting principle relates to a firm’s system of quality control criteria for
conducting an audit.
6. Auditors cannot effectively satisfy the responsibilities principle requiring due care
if they have not also satisfied the performance principle.
7. Substantive procedures performed by the audit team are most closely related to
the risk of material misstatement.
8. Auditing procedures are the same as auditing standards.
9. The concept of due care reflects the need to plan and perform the audit with an
appropriate level of professional skepticism.
10.Under the performance principle, auditors are required to provide absolute
assurance that the client’s financial statements do not contain material
11.The performance principle sets forth the quality criteria for conducting an audit.
12.Auditors of public entities registered with the Securities and Exchange
Commission are required to register with the Public Company Accounting
13.Control risk is the probability that a material misstatement (error or fraud) could
occur and not be prevented or detected on a timely basis by the auditors’
14.The word appropriateness refers to the number of transactions or components of
an account balance examined by auditors.
15.To be considered material, an item must be one that would influence the decision
of financial statement users.
16.The contents of the auditors’ report are guided by the performance principle of
17.An unqualified opinion indicates that the financial statements present the entity’s
financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows in conformity with
18.The auditors’ report should either contain an expression of opinion on the financial
statements taken as a whole or an assertion to the effect that an opinion cannot
19.Evidence is considered appropriate when it is both valid and relevant.
20.The purpose of a system of quality control is to provide reasonable assurance
that the firm and its personnel issue reports that are appropriate under the
Multiple Choice Questions
21.(Appendix) The attestation standards do not require the attestation report to
include a statement that
A. Provides a conclusion whether the subject matter is presented in conformity
with established or stated criteria.
B. Indicates that the practitioner has significant reservations about the
C. Identifies the subject matter or assertion being reported on.
D. Indicates that the accountant assumes no responsibility to update the report.
22.Control risk is
A. The probability that a material misstatement could not be prevented or
detected by the entity’s internal control policies and procedures.
B. The probability that a material misstatement could occur and not be detected
by auditors’ procedures.
C. The risk that auditors will not be able to complete the audit on a timely basis.
D. The risk that auditors will not properly control the staff on the audit
23.The responsibilities principle under generally accepted auditing standards does
not include which of the following?
A. Competence and capabilities.
B. Independent attitude.
C. Due care.
D. Planning and supervision.
24.Which of the following types of auditors’ reports does not require an explanatory
paragraph to support the opinion?
A. Unqualified opinion.
B. Adverse opinion.
C. Qualified opinion.
D. Disclaimer of opinion.
25.Which of the following is an element of a system of quality control that should be
considered by a public accounting firm in establishing its quality control policies
A. Lending credibility to a client’s financial statements.
B. Using statistical sampling techniques.
C. Accepting and continuing client relationships and specific engagements.
D. Obtaining membership in the Center for Public Company Audit Firms.
26.Which of the following presumptions does not relate to the reliability of audit
A. The more effective the client’s internal control, the more assurance it provides
about the accounting data and financial statements.
B. The auditors’ opinion, to be economically useful, is formed within a reasonable
time and based on evidence obtained at a reasonable cost.
C. Evidence obtained from independent sources outside the entity is more reliable
than evidence secured solely within the entity.
D. The independent auditors’ direct personal knowledge, obtained through
observation and inspection, is more persuasive than information obtained
27.An important role of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board is to
A. Issuance of statements by the Financial Accounting Standards Board.
B. Preparation and grading of the Uniform CPA Examination.
C. Peer review of member firms of the Private Companies Practice Section.
D. Regulation of firms that audit public entities.
28.Audit evidence is usually considered sufficient when
A. It is reliable.
B. There is enough quantity to afford a reasonable basis for an opinion on
C. It has the qualities of being relevant, objective, and free from unknown bias.
D. It has been obtained through random selection methods.
29.Which of the following is not considered a type of audit evidence?
A. Entity’s trial balance.
B. Auditors’ calculations.
C. Physical observation.
D. Verbal statements made by client personnel.
30.(Appendix) The AICPA attestation standards differ from the responsibilities
principle, performance principle, and reporting principle in that:
A. The attestation standards contain no requirement to obtain an understanding of
the entity and assess the risk of material misstatement.
B. The attestation standards do not require competence and capabilities.
C. The attestation standards do not require planning for attestation engagements
or supervision of accountants and consultants who perform the work.
D. The attestation standards do not require a report that states the character of
31.An audit of the financial statements of Camden Corporation is being conducted by
external auditors. The external auditors are expected to:
A. Certify the correctness of Camden’s financial statements.
B. Make a complete examination of Camden’s records and verify all of Camden’s
C. Give an opinion on the fair presentation of Camden’s financial statements in
conformity with the applicable financial reporting framework (e.g., GAAP,
D. Give an opinion on the attractiveness of Camden for investment purposes and
critique the wisdom and legality of its business decisions.
32.Auditors try to achieve independence in appearance in order to:
A. Maintain public confidence in the profession.
B. Become independent in fact.
C. Comply with the responsibilities principle.
D. Maintain an unbiased mental attitude.
33.The preparation of an audit plan prior to the beginning of fieldwork is appropriately
considered documentation of
C. Information evaluation.
D. Quality assurance.
34.Which of the following procedures would provide the most reliable audit
A. Inquiries of the client’s accounting staff held in private.
B. Inspection of prenumbered client shipping documents.
C. Inspection of bank statements obtained directly from the client’s financial
D. Analytical procedures performed by auditors on the client’s trial balance.
35.(Appendix) Which of the following is not an attestation standard?
A. The practitioner must obtain sufficient evidence to provide a reasonable basis
for the conclusion expressed in the report.
B. The practitioner must identify the subject matter or the assertion being reported
on and state the character of the engagement.
C. The practitioner must adequately plan the work and must properly supervise
D. A sufficient understanding of the client’s internal controls shall be obtained to
plan the engagement.
36.Which of the following would most likely be a violation of the independence
requirement found in the responsibilities principle under generally accepted
A. An auditor on the engagement has a distant relative who is employed by a
vendor that does a significant amount of business with clients.
B. The client’s chief executive officer graduated from the same university as the
partner in charge of the accounting firm.
C. An auditor on the engagement owns a financial interest in the client’s stock.
D. The client provides financial support to a number of charitable causes that also
receive support from the accounting firm.
37.A vendor’s invoice received and held by the client would be considered what type
D. Written representation.
38.Which of the following statements is generally correct about the appropriateness
of audit evidence?
A. Auditors’ direct personal knowledge obtained through observation and
inspection is more persuasive than information obtained indirectly from
independent outside sources.
B. To be reliable, audit evidence must be either valid or relevant but need not be
C. Client accounting data alone may be considered sufficient appropriate audit
evidence to issue an unqualified opinion on client financial statements.
D. Appropriateness of audit evidence refers to the amount of corroborative
evidence to be obtained.
39.The standard auditors’ report refers to standards of the PCAOB and GAAP in
A. Standards of the PCAOB: Scope only; GAAP: Opinion only
B. Standards of the PCAOB: Introductory only; GAAP: Scope and opinion
C. Standards of the PCAOB: Introductory and scope; GAAP: Opinion only
D. Standards of the PCAOB: Introductory only; GAAP: All paragraphs
40.Which of the following is not included in the auditors’ standard report representing
an unqualified opinion?
A. A brief indication of the responsibility of auditors and management for the
B. An indication that all appropriate disclosures have been made and included in
the financial statements.
C. An indication that the audit was conducted in accordance with standards
established by the PCAOB.
D. The auditors’ opinion on the fairness of the financial statements.
A. Is obtained directly from third parties independent of the client.
B. Originates outside the client’s system but has been received and processed by
C. Consists of documents that are produced, used, and stored within the client’s
D. Consists of representations made by the client’s officers, directors, owners,
42.Which of the following presumptions is correct about the reliability of audit
A. Information obtained indirectly from outside sources is the most reliable form of
B. To be reliable, audit evidence should be convincing rather than persuasive.
C. Reliability of audit evidence refers to the amount of corroborative evidence
D. An effective system of internal control provides more assurance about the
reliability of audit evidence.
43.The auditors’ responsibility to express an opinion on the financial statements is
A. Implicitly represented in the auditors’ standard report.
B. Explicitly represented in the introductory paragraph of the auditors’ standard
C. Explicitly represented in the scope paragraph of the auditors’ standard report.
D. Explicitly represented in the opinion paragraph of the auditors’ standard report.
44.Which of the following is not a concept from the performance principle under
generally accepted auditing standards?
A. The auditor must plan the work and properly supervise any assistants.
B. The auditor must express an opinion in accordance with the auditor’s findings.
C. The auditor must obtain sufficient appropriate evidence about whether material
D. The auditor must determine and apply an appropriate materiality level
throughout the audit.
45.Under generally accepted auditing standards, which of the following relates to the
A. The initial planning of the audit engagement.
B. The confirmation of accounts receivable.
C. The completion of an internal control questionnaire.
D. Maintaining professional skepticism and exercising professional judgment.
46.Which of the following represent(s) audit quality guides that remain stable over
time and are applicable for all audits?
A. Auditing procedures.
B. Auditing standards.
C. Due care.
D. System of quality control.
47.Which of the following situations would most likely be in conflict with the
A. Auditors perform the engagement with the performance level expected of
prudent auditors but not expert auditors.
B. Auditors obtain expertise in their client’s industry as they are conducting the
C. Auditors are directly involved with a client manager in a strategic decisionmaking capacity.
D. Auditors fail to document their assessment of control risk following their study
of internal control.
48.Which of the following statements is not true with respect to the evidence that
would be gathered when assessments of control risk are high?
A. Auditors would be required to rely on external (rather than internal) forms of
B. Auditors would be required to perform procedures at interim periods rather
than at year-end.
C. Auditors would be required to confirm a larger number of customer accounts
D. Auditors would be required to obtain more evidence through direct personal
49.As it relates to audit evidence, appropriateness refers to the
A. Originality of evidence gathered.
B. Quality of evidence gathered.
C. Quantity of evidence gathered.
D. Timeliness of evidence gathered.
50.Which of the following information would not be included in the auditors’ standard
A. The names of the financial statements audited.
B. A description of the nature of an audit.
C. An indication that all necessary disclosures have been presented.
D. An opinion on the entity’s financial statements.
51.The primary purpose of the auditors’ study of internal control for a nonpublic entity
A. To provide constructive suggestions to the client for improving its internal
B. To report on internal control as required by Auditing Standard No. 5.
C. To identify and detect fraud and irregularities perpetrated by client personnel.
D. To determine the nature, timing, and extent of substantive procedures.
52.Which reporting options do auditors have if the client’s financial statements are
not presented according to the applicable financial framework (e.g., GAAP,
A. Unqualified opinion or disclaimer of opinion.
B. Qualified opinion or disclaimer of opinion.
C. Unqualified opinion or adverse opinion.
D. Qualified opinion or adverse opinion.
53.Which of the following statements is true with respect to the persuasiveness of
A. Persuasiveness is related to the relevance of evidence but not the reliability of
B. Evidence is considered more persuasive when gathered prior to year-end than
C. Evidence obtained under environments of stronger internal control is more
persuasive than evidence obtained under environments of weaker internal
D. In evaluating persuasiveness, sufficiency of evidence is of more importance
than appropriateness of evidence.