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MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers
1) ______ is an example of an element. 1) _______
2) Which of the following elements is not one of the four most common
elements in living things?
3) Which of the following elements, essential to life, is a trace element? 3) _______
4) An atom with a positive charge has ______. 4) _______
A) more electrons than protons
B) more protons than neutrons
C) more protons than electrons
D) equal numbers of protons, electrons, and neutrons
E) more neutrons than protons
5) All atoms of an element have the same number of ______. 5) _______
A) protons plus neutrons
C) electrons plus neutrons
6) An atom’s protons are found in its ______. 6) _______
E) electron cloud
7) Beryllium’s atomic mass is 9 and its atomic number is 4. How many
neutrons are found in a beryllium atom?
A) 5 B) 13 C) 2 D) 4 E) 9
8) An uncharged atom of gold has an atomic number of 79 and an atomic
mass of 197. This atom has ______ protons, ______ neutrons, and ______
A) 118 . . . 79 . . . 118
B) 79 . . . 118 . . . 79
C) 276 . . . 118 . . . 79
D) 79 . . . 276 . . . 79
E) 118 . . . 276 . . . 118
9) The way Earth moves about the sun is most like ______. 9) _______
A) an electron moving around the nucleus of an atom
B) a neutron moving about a proton
C) a proton and neutron moving around an electron
D) a neutron and electron moving around a proton
E) a proton moving about an electron
10) Isotopes of an element have the same number of ______ and different
numbers of ______.
A) neutrons . . . electrons
B) electrons . . . protons
C) protons . . . neutrons
D) neutrons . . . protons
E) protons . . . electrons
11) How do radioactive isotopes differ from isotopes? 11) ______
A) Radioactive isotopes have fewer neutrons than do isotopes.
B) They are atoms of different elements.
C) Radioactive isotopes are unstable; isotopes are stable.
D) Radioactive isotopes are stable; isotopes are unstable.
E) Radioactive isotopes have more neutrons than do isotopes.
12) The second electron shell of an atom can hold a maximum of ______
A) 1 B) 8 C) 6 D) 2 E) 3
13) Nitrogen has an atomic number of 7; therefore, it has ______ electrons in
its outermost electron shell.
A) 1 B) 10 C) 5 D) 2 E) 18
14) An atom with an electrical charge is a(n) ______. 14) ______
15) The bond between oppositely charged ions is a(n) ______ bond. 15) ______
16) In the following reaction, what type of bond is holding the two atoms together?
K + Cl
→ K+ +
17) What name is given to bonds that involve the sharing of electrons? 17) ______
18) Sulfur has an atomic number of 16. How many covalent bonds can
A) 1 B) 2 C) 3 D) 4 E) 0
19) The hydrogens and oxygen of a water molecule are held together by
20) Why is water considered a polar molecule? 20) ______
A) The oxygen end of the molecule has a slight negative charge, and
the hydrogen end has a slight positive charge.
B) The oxygen is found between the two hydrogens.
C) Both hydrogens are at one end of the molecule, and oxygen is at
the other end.
D) The oxygen atom attracts the hydrogen atoms.
E) It remains liquid even at very low temperatures.
21) Adjacent water molecules are joined by ______ bonds. 21) ______
A) polar and covalent
B) covalent only
22) Adjacent water molecules are connected by the ______. 22) ______
A) sharing of electrons between adjacent oxygen molecules
B) sharing of electrons between hydrogens of adjacent water
C) electrical attraction between the hydrogen of one water molecule
and the oxygen of another water molecule
D) sharing of electrons between the hydrogen of one water molecule
and the oxygen of another water molecule
E) electrical attraction between the hydrogens of adjacent water
23) How many oxygen atoms are in the products of the following reaction?
C6H12O6 + 6 H2O + 6 O2 → 6 CO2 + 12 H2O
A) 2 B) 12 C) 24 D) 18 E) 6
24) What are the reactant(s) in the following chemical reaction?
C6H12O6 + 6 H2O + 6 O2 → 6 CO2 + 12 H2O
A) CO2 and H2O
B) CO2 only
C) O2 only
D) C6H12O6, H2O, O2, CO2, and H2O
E) C6H12O6, H2O, and O2
25) Human body cells are approximately ______ water. 25) ______
26) The tendency of molecules of the same kind to stick together is called
27) Why (if you are careful) are you able to float a needle on the surface of
A) The surface tension that is a result of water’s cohesive properties
makes this possible.
B) Water has adhesive properties.
C) The polarity of individual water molecules makes this happen.
D) A single needle is less dense than water.
E) The covalent bonds that hold a water molecule together are
responsible for this ability.
28) Sweating cools your body by ______. 28) ______
D) hydrogen bonding
E) evaporative cooling
29) As water freezes ______. 29) ______
A) its molecules move farther apart
B) its hydrogen bonds break apart
C) it absorbs energy from the surrounding environment
D) it loses its polarity
E) it cools the surrounding environment
30) Sugar dissolves when stirred into water. The sugar is the ______, the
water is the ______, and the sweetened water is the ______.
A) solvent . . . solute . . . solution
B) solution . . . solute . . . solvent
C) solvent . . . solution . . . solute
D) solution . . . solvent . . . solute
E) solute . . . solvent . . . solution
31) Which of the following is an acid? 31) ______
32) A base ______. 32) ______
A) decreases the pH of a solution
B) removes H2O molecules from a solution
C) adds HOH molecules to a solution
D) removes OH— ions from a solution
E) removes H+ ions from a solution
33) The lower the pH of a solution, the ______. 33) ______
A) more basic the solution
B) more acidic the solution
C) less toxic the solution
D) higher the OH— concentration
E) greater the number of oxygen atoms
34) Relative to a pH of 6, a pH of 4 has a ______. 34) ______
A) 200 times higher H+ concentration
B) 100 times higher H+ concentration
C) 20 times higher H+ concentration
D) 20 times lower H+ concentration
E) 100 times lower H+ concentration
35) What name is given to substances that resist changes in pH? 35) ______
36) When a base is added to a buffered solution, the buffer will ______. 36) ______
A) donate H+ ions
B) accept water molecules
C) donate OH— ions
D) accept H+ ions
E) form covalent bonds with the base
37) People have long speculated about whether life exists on Mars.
Scientists have evidence that on Mars, ______.
A) the only water present has always been frozen in the polar ice caps
B) plant life exists
C) microbial life exists
D) liquid water has existed in the past
E) water is found only in the form of water vapor
38) Examine the drawing of an atom below. The art is technically incorrect
in that ______.
A) electrons do not orbit the nucleus
B) neutrons are not located in the nucleus
C) protons are not located in the nucleus
D) the electrons should be much farther away from the nucleus
E) electrons do not have a negative charge
39) Examine the following figure. Which of the representations of molecules
does not reveal double bonds?
A) electron configuration
B) ball-and-stick model
C) structural formula
D) space-filling model
E) All of the representations of molecules reveal double bonds.
40) Examine the pH scale below. How does household bleach compare to
A) Household bleach is more acidic than household ammonia.
B) Household bleach has 10 times higher H+ concentration than
C) Household bleach has 100 times higher H+ concentration than
D) Household ammonia has 10 times higher H+ concentration.
E) Household ammonia has 100 times higher H+ concentration.
Please read the following scenario to answer the following question(s).
The last few miles of the marathon are the most difficult for Heather. Her hair is plastered to her
head, sweat clings to her arms, and her legs feel as if they had nothing left. Heather grabs a cup
of ice water. The ice cubes smash against her nose as she gulps some cool refreshment and keeps
on running. Then a breeze kicks up and she finally feels some coolness against her skin. Drops of
sweat, once clinging to her forehead, now spill down, and Heather feels a stinging as the sweat
flows into her eyes.
41) Sweat on Heather’s forehead and arms formed drops because of the
A) ability of water to act as a solvent
B) high salt content of sweat
C) ability of water to moderate heat
D) cohesive nature of water
E) high evaporative cooling effect of water
42) Which of the following is the most likely reason why the ice struck
Heather’s nose when she took a drink?
A) Water can moderate temperatures through evaporative cooling.
B) Water can function as a solvent.
C) The density of water decreases when it freezes.
D) Water has a cohesive nature.
E) Water can store large amounts of heat.