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Chapter 2: Creating an Effective Learning Environment
Multiple Choice Questions
2.1 The concept of language as social practice means that
a. language has rules of etiquette.
b. all languages are equal to all others.
c. language is used to exchange meaning among people.
d. discourses are identity kits.
2.2 Stereotyping in gendered talk among students during a class discussion may eventually lead to
a. better working relations between males and females.
b. students shaping their identities to match the talk.
c. parents filing class action suits.
d. criticisms of the textbook and curriculum.
2.3 If you believe that second-language development is more a matter of acquisition than learning through
formal methods, which of the following practices would you favor?
a. teaching grammar rules
b. establishing more bilingual/bicultural programs
c. tolerating greater diversity in students’ thinking
d. exposing ESL students to various word games
2.4 Advocates of sheltered English think of it as a
a. way for ELs to learn content and English simultaneously.
b. substitute for instruction in English.
c. method for teaching children who live in homeless shelters.
d. program that is too costly for schools to manage on their own.
2.5 Creative Thinking-Reading Activities (CT-RA) is the name of a strategy that is especially suitable for
a. content area teachers in art and drama.
b. students who have strong egos.
c. English language learners (ELLs).
d. schools in which high-stakes testing is important.
2.6. Culturally responsive teaching requires the following:
a. teach all students of the same race/ethnicity as though they are alike.
b. choose one racial/ethnic group as the target group.
c. plan instruction to match a group’s “average” ability.
d. know that students from any one ethnic group respond differently.
2.7 Which of the following is NOT suggested for teachers in culturally diverse classrooms?
a. Teach all students to think critically.
b. Ignore cultural differences by treating everyone the same.
c. Recognize and celebrate language differences.
d. Understand how culturally diverse students view the world.
2.8 When a child’s home language does not match the language spoken at school, that child is
a. naturally at risk of falling behind his or her peers.
b. an example of the “deficit hypothesis.”
c. likely to benefit from being taught the “power code of Standard English.”
d. probably living in poverty.
2.9 The following is NOT an effective strategy for teaching in diverse classrooms.
a. teaching through conversation
b. participating in joint productive activity
c. teaching phonemic awareness
d. connecting school to students’ lives
2.10 Educators of gifted and talented youngsters are probably most aware of
a. an underrepresentation of minority and poor children.
b. the needs of readers who struggle with printed text.
c. the Sheltered Instruction Observational Protocol (SIOP).
d. African American Vernacular English (AAVE).
2.11 Which of the following is NOT associated with using technology to create community?
c. online writing assessments
d. interactive communication software
Short Essay Questions
2.1 Describe a major way in which proficiency in conversational and academic literacy differ and why this
difference has implications for literacy instruction in your discipline.
2.2 According to Ladson-Billings, what does it mean “to make students cognizant of the power of language
and the language of power”?
2.3 Describe how the involvement of parents in school decision making would be an example of the school’s
attention to culturally responsive instruction.
2.4 What is common about most instructional strategies that have been effectively used with readers who
struggle to comprehend their content area texts?
Multiple Choice Answer Key
Short Essay Answers
2.1 Answers will vary, but should include the fact that conversational English is acquired fairly quickly, but
the language and complex concepts that form the very core of subject-matter learning require a longer
time. Instructionally this means providing scaffolded support when introducing cognitively challenging
texts—a recommendation that aligns perfectly with the Learning Cycle.
2.2 This phrase refers to the need for all speakers to recognize when it is appropriate to use dialect and when
it is not. It refuses to romanticize differences when in fact those differences can be held against someone
for social, political, and economic gain.
2.3 Answers will vary, but should allude to the notion that a student’s home environment should not be
viewed as “lacking,” but rather, as being rich in experiences that can make school learning relevant.
2.4 Answers will vary but should include the notion of scaffolded instruction, which involves teaching
students to monitor their comprehension through self-questioning and applying fix-up strategies when
comprehension is lost.