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MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.
1) A number of sigificant ________ anthropological research in Canada have been conducted “at
2) Margaret Lock 2) _______
A) combined historical study with ethnographic observations to explain contemporary social
B) examined 300 years of changes in a small Alpine village in southwestern France.
C) studied globalization, complexity and change in small localized cultures.
D) integrated isolated cultures into wider economic and political spheres.
E) explored the cultural construction of menopause in Japan and North America.
3) Camilla Gibb studied the Harari, a dispersed community of ________, in the city of Harar and in
A) Hakka people; southern China.
B) Muslim Ethiopians; Toronto.
C) Hindus; Halifax.
D) Chinese Americans; San Francisco.
E) Mennonites; Kitchner.
4) Camilla Gibb studied the Harari living in the city of Harar and in Toronto in an attempt to reveal 4) _______
A) the differences among diasporic generations about eventual return to Ethiopia.
B) that cultures are genetically determined.
C) that anthropologists should focus primarily on people’s thoughts and ideas.
D) the basic importance of doing fieldwork.
E) the number of specialty fields in the discipline.
5) While conducting fieldwork in southwestern Ontario, Daphne Winland came across a small
congregation of Hmong refugess from Laos, who had decided to convert to Christianity. This
provided her with a fascinating example of
A) the role of religion in refugee adjustment.
B) “re-studies” of refugee communities.
C) how differences may develop among diasporic generations.
D) how aspects of community and identity were defined and debated.
E) changing leadership patterns.
6) Daphne Winland’s work among the Hmong refugees from Laos who had been sponsored by the
Mennonite community in Kitchner-Waterloo, helped her to understand
A) the communication barriers to refugee health problems .
B) the role of religion in refugee adjustment and the Mennonite struggles over their identity as
an ethnoreligious enclave.
C) the importance of gift giving and learning proper rules of gift exchange.
D) the difficult lives of refugees and their contribution to anthropology.
E) the role of anthropologists in refugee settlements.
7) Penny and John Van Esterik returned to their fieldsite, a village in Central Thailand, to see how
the community had changed in 30 years. This is an example of
A) participant observation.
B) learning a non-Western language.
C) cultural relativism.
8) Adlam’s study of “fish talk” among Mi’kmaq fishers of the Miramichi River, New Brunswick
A) the Canadian and Norwegian fishing cooperatives.
B) the three First Nations women’s life experiences in a fishing village.
C) the techniques used in qualitative research.
D) the traditionalist with the modernist conception of the rapidly changing fishing economy.
E) the “rugged individualists” with the “utilitarians.
9) Richard Lee conducted fieldwork among the ________ and wrote a classis article on the
A) !Kung San Bushmen (Ju/wasi)/gift giving and reciprocity.
B) homeless people/ HIV/AIDS transmission.
C) three First Nations women/life experiences and personal recollections.
D) Mi’kmaq fishers/ a changing fishing economy.
E) Hmong refugees/ refugee adjustments and religious beliefs.
10) The National Archives of Canada, provincial archives, and mission reports provide valuable
evidence on the development of residential schools for
A) the Northwest Coast of Canada.
B) political refugees.
C) anthropology students.
D) immigrant populations.
E) Native Peoples of Canada.
11) Margaret Lock devised an ethnographic approach to study the cultural construction of
menopause in Japan and North America using
A) medical discourses about female midlife.
B) the politics of aging in Japan and North America.
C) individual narratives about the aging symptoms associated with the end of menstruation.
D) a combination of A, B, and C.
E) A and B only.
12) Jean Brigg’s role as a daughter in an Inuit community raised 12) ______
A) biases in the data when the researcher doesn’t know the language well.
B) the problems of losing her outsider status, depletion of her supplies, and loss of privacy.
C) the tendency for respondents to change their behavior to correspond with her interests.
D) the tendency for respondents to not want to answer her questions.
E) the tendency for Inuit men to answer questions on behalf of women.
13) ‘ Life Lived Like a Story’ is an example of a life history approach that 13) ______
A) is favored by anthropologists who seek quantitative data on large populations.
B) has been rejected in cultural anthropology as too unreliable.
C) was more successful for women respondents than men since women have more time.
D) was popular in the 19th century but has been abandoned as too time-consuming.
E) depicts three First Nations women’s life experiences in Yukon through family genealogies,
personal recollections, and traditional stories.
14) Canadian anthropologists are facing new ethical demands as they must conform to the ethics
A) universities and anthropology standards.
B) American Anthropological Association (AAA).
C) Medical Research Council of Canada.
D) cross-disciplinary research agencies only.
E) cross-disciplinary research agencies, in addition to meeting university and anthropology
15) Recently a number of Canadian anthropologists have explored the complexity of children’s lives.
These ethnographies of children include
A) a team approach to developing child sensitive intervention strategies.
B) the media depiction of children, the intimacy of children’s play, and the cultural politics
revealed in post-war parliamentary debates about family allowances and the “right kind of
C) the importance of talking to children and understanding their worldview.
D) how cliches like “innocent child” mask differences among children according to age,
gender, race, class, and location.
E) a combination of B and D.
16) Anthropologists can provide First Nations groups with useful records of their culture through 16) ______
A) the interview method.
B) the inductive method.
C) ethnohistorical texts.
D) life history.
17) The Canadian and Norwegian researchers conducted formal interviews with a questionnaire
among 51 members of a fishing community. Based on their responses, the researchers
categorized the members into two basic groups:
A) traditionalists and rugged individualists.
B) utilitarians and Mi’kmaq fishers.
C) traditionalist and modernist.
D) rugged individualists and utilitarians.
E) modernists and utilitarians.
18) In ________, three First Nations women living in the Yukon recount their experiences through
family geneologies, personal collections, and traditional stories.
A) Fish Talk
B) Life Lived Like a Story
C) Nootka and Tsimshian
D) Writing Women’s Worlds
E) Kwakwaka’ wakw and Haida
19) The James Bay Cree Project, trained graduate students in anthropology to do research for 19) ______
A) local agencies representing indigenous groups, providing information useful in settling
land claim issues.
B) First Nations groups documenting their myths, songs, speeches and accounts of how to
C) the First Nations communities in Canada.
D) Canadian fishing industry.
E) the development of residential schools for Native Peoples in Canada.
20) Anthropologists researching First Nations communities in Canada have to follow stringent
guidelines such as
A) sharing the results of the research with the community although individuals retain the
right to privacy.
B) seeking approval by band councils, conducting research in partnership with the council
and the community, and sharing the results of the research with the community although
individuals retain the right to privacy.
C) conducting research in partnership with the council and the community.
D) seeking approval by band councils.
E) seeking approval by band councils and conducting research in partnership with the council
and the community.
21) Rosalind Morris examined ethnographic films of the Northwest Coast of Canada that focus on 21) ______
A) combining video taping with note taking.
B) kinship and life history data.
C) potlatches, feasts, totem poles, and wood carvings.
D) combining asking questions with making observations.
E) personal characteristics and participation in a fishing cooperative.
22) First Nations communities have made use of early ________ to assist them in recovering
forgotten aspects of their culture.
A) life histories
B) songs and speeches
C) myths and rituals
D) analytical method of “condensation”
E) ethnohistorical texts
23) ________ collected thousands of pages of texts from First Nations of the Northwest Coast of
Canada, including myths, songs, speeches, and accounts of how to perform rituals.
A) Rosalind Morris
B) Alexander Ervin
D) Franz Boas
E) Jean Briggs
24) Earliest films of the Northest Coast of Canada include 24) ______
A) Medusa’s Hair: An Essay on Personal Symbols and Religious Experience.
B) The James Bay Cree Project
C) Kwakwaka’wakw, Nootka, Tsimshian, and Haida.
D) Fish Talk Among Mi’kmaq Fishers of the Miramichi River.
E) Autobiography of a Winnebago Indian.
25) ________was adopted as a daughter in an ________ community in the Canadian Arctic. 25) ______
A) Camilla Gibb; Harari
B) Jean Briggs; Inuit
C) Margaret Lock; Mennonite
D) Penny Van Esterik; Baffin
E) Daphne Winland; Hmong
26) Anthropologists researching ________ communities in Canada must follow stringent guidelines
and be approved by band councils, as well as obtaining the standard ethical approvals.
A) non literate
D) First Nations
27) Recent films made by and for First Nations communities focus more on 27) ______
A) First Nations fishing communities.
B) First Nations women’s life experiences and traditional stories.
C) cultural survival.
D) potlatches, feasts, totem poles, and wood carvings.
E) land-claim disputes and other struggles with provincial and federal governments.
28) Margaret Lock is the author of 28) ______
A) The Golden Bough.
B) Encounters with Aging: Mythologies of Menopause in Japan and North America.
C) Native Peoples of Canada .
D) Iroquois Book of Rites.
E) A Negotiated World: Three Centuries of Change in a French Alpine Community.
TRUE/FALSE. Write ‘T’ if the statement is true and ‘F’ if the statement is false.
29) In Canada, policy-relevant anthropological research are extremely uncommon. 29) ______
30) In Canada, team research may also involve several anthropologists and students working
together with members of First Nations communities to document land claim issues.
31) Area-specific foundations, such as the Shastri Indo-Canadian Institute provide a source of
funding for Canadian researchers .
32) Jean Briggs examined ethnographic films of the Northwest Coast of Canada. 32) ______
33) Hakka communities are also found in Canada. 33) ______
34) Richard Lee was troubled by people’s response to his generosity during a Christmas feast. 34) ______
35) The study of a fisherman’s cooperative in Newfoundland, Canada, revealed the problem that
people may not always behave according to how they say they would behave.
36) Canadian anthropologists face new ethical demands as they must now conform to the ethics
policies of cross-disciplinary research agencies, in addition to meeting university and
37) Anthropologists researching First Nations community in Canada are not required to share their
results with the community because of their right to retain privacy.
38) Anthropologists researching First Nations communities in Canada must be approved by band
councils as well as obtain the usual ethical approvals.
39) It is difficult to find any information regarding the development of residential schools for Native
Peoples in Canada.
40) The United Way of Canada, requested an anthropologist to find out what the highest priorities
were for their funding operations in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan.
41) Early ethnographic films on First Nations people often focused on potlatches, feasts, feasts,
totem poles, and wood carvings.
42) The Vietnam War affected Canadian anthropology, as many anthropologists participated in
teach-ins and anti-war protests.
43) Some departments in Canada require students to submit a form indicating that they are aware of
possible risks in the field and have taken precautions to ensure that their fieldwork will be as
safe as possible .
44) First Nations communities have declined the use of early ethnohistorical texts to assist them in
recovering forgotten aspects of their culture .
45) Anthropologists researching First Nations communities in Canada are not required to obtain
approval from band councils.
46) Jean Briggs’s role as an adopted daughter in an Inuit community resulted in depletion of her
supplies and the loss of privacy.
SHORT ANSWER. Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the question.
47) Research among First Nations communities is conducted in partnership with
the________ and ________.
48) In ________, three First Nations women living in the Yukon recount their experiences
through family genealogies, personal recollections, and traditional stories.
49) ________ studied children’s musical practices in Toronto and showed how their play
allowed them to resist adult definitions of childhood.
50) ________ explored the ________ of menopause in Japan and North America. 50) _____________
51) ________ collected thousands of pages of text from First Nations groups of the
Northwest Coast of Canada, including myths, songs, speeches, and accounts of how to
52) Canadian anthropologists face new ethical demands as they must now conform to the
ethical policies of ________, in addition to meeting university and anthropology
53) Hale’s book ________ helped dismantle the prevailing Euro-American perception of the
________ as “dangerous savages.”
54) In recent times, films have been made by and for First Nations communities, and they
focus more on ________ with provincial and fedreal governments.
55) While conducting fieldwork in southwestern Ontario, Daphne Winland came across a sm all congregation
d by the
56) Rosalind Morris has explored in great detail ethnographic films of the ________ of
57) Dicuss the importance of ethnographic films on First Nations peoples studied by
58) Describe the importance of Margaret Lock’s research on the cultural construction of
menopause in medical anthrpology.
59) What conclusions did Daphne Winland derive from her study among the Hmong
refugees and the Mennonite community?
60) What insights regarding gift giving and reciprocity did Richard Lee gain from his
fieldwork among the !Kung San Bushmen.
61) Describe the impact of Vietnam War on Canadian Anthropology. 61) _____________
62) What guidelines do Canadian Anthropologists follow while conducting research on First
63) What factors can influence fieldwork? 63) _____________
64) What are two guidelines of anthropology’s Code of Ethics? 64) _____________
65) Why is it necessary for some departments in Canada to obtain consent from students
about the possible risks in the field and their awareness of necessary precautions ?
66) Discuss one example of danger in doing fieldwork. 66) _____________
67) Camilla Gibb studied the ________, a dispersed community of Muslim Ethiopians, in the
city of ________ and in Toronto.
68) In 2001 and 2005, ________ returned to their fieldsite, a village in Central Thailand, to
see how the community had changed in 30 years. In anthropological research, this is an
example of a ________.
69) Area-specific Canadian funding for anthropological research includes the ________ and ___ _____.
70) Canadian funding for anthropological research comes primarily from the ________ and
71) ________ conducted fieldwork among the ________ and wrote a classic article on the
complexities of gift giving and reciprocity.
72) ________ of children also demonstrate how cliches like innocent child mask differences
among children according to age, gender, race, class, and location.
ESSAY. Write your answer in the space provided or on a separate sheet of paper.
73) Describe the difference between deductive and inductive research and how this difference relates to
fieldwork methods. Discuss the kinds of ethnographies that cultural materialists and interpretivists tend to
74) What are some of the key ethical issues in cultural anthropology and how do they make cultural
anthropology different from another discipline that you have studied (such as history, chemistry or political
75) What observations did Rosalind Morris make while examining ethnographic films from the Northwest Coast
of Canada ?
76) What does the method of participation observation involve in terms of “costs” and “benefits” compared to
research methods in some other discipline (such as history, chemistry, or political science?).
77) In the example of a study conducted on a fishing cooperative in Newfoundland, what research methods
did the anthropologists use? What kinds of information were gained? What were the limitations?
47) council; community
48) Life Lived Like a Story
49) Virginia Caputo
50) Margaret Lock; cultutral construction
51) Franz Boas
52) cross-disciplinary research agencies
53) Iroquois Book of Rites; Iroquois
54) land-claim disputes and other struggles
55) Hmong Indochinese; Mennonite
56) North west coast
57) Emic/Etic analysis of First Nation communities. Outsiders making films on First Nations peoples drew attention to
their cultural practices. Films made by First Nations peoples focused more on problems and challenges faced by
First Nation communities.
58) By combining popular and professional accounts including individual narratives, medical discourses, and the
politics of aging, Lock developed a powerful ethnographic approach in medical anthropology.
59) The role of religion in refugee adjustment; Mennonite struggles over their long-established identity as an
60) local rules of exchange including what constitutes an culturally appropriate or inappropriate gift, how to deliver a
gift, and how to behave as a gift giver.
61) Many departments of anthropology absorbed American draft resistors as graduate students and professors,
aligning some Canadian departments more closely with American ones.
62) Anthropologists researching First Nations communities in Canada must follow stringent guidelines and be
approved by band councils, as well as obtain standard ethical approvals.
65) Based on earlier fieldwork experiences of anthropologists, specific recommendations were made about how
fieldworkers can prepare themselves more effectively for probable risks.
67) Harari; Harar
68) John and Penny Van Esterik; re-study.
69) Shastri Indo-Canadian Institute; the Japan Foundation.
70) Social Science and Humanities Research council; Canadian International Development Agency.
71) Richard Leel; !Kung San Bushmen (Ju/wasi)
75) Films on First Nations peoples represented by outsiders focus on art and cultural practices such as potlatches,
feasts, totem poles and wood carvings. Most films made by and for First Nations peoples focus more on problems
and challenges faced by First Nations communities including land-claim disputes.
77) formal interviews with a questionnaire; the rugged individualists were willing to donate more time to cooperative
activities compared to the utilitarians; further observational studies were not carried out to check the accuracy of