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1. Fundamental principles of research include all of the following except:
E. All of the above are fundamental principles.
Answer: E (34-37)
2. What is meant by “falsifiability”?
A. It means the research report contains fraudulent claims.
B. It means that hypotheses in the study can be refuted with empirical
C. It means that a good research hypothesis “proves wrong” a claim of
D. It means that the study proved its conclusions.
E. It means that the study failed to prove its conclusions.
Answer: B (36)
3. “Generalizability” in qualitative research in practice means the findings
A. Relevant to similar situations and processes.
B. Generic in the sense that similar processes can be found in many
C. Subjected to tests of significance to show that data from a sample
yield results that are very close to the population parameters.
D. A and B.
E. B and C.
Answer: D (35)
4 Objectivity means that
A. The researcher is indifferent to the findings.
B. The researcher’s work is value-free in the choice of topic.
C. The statement of findings is not influenced by the researcher’s
D. Observers with different views of a situation can agree on a
statement about the situation.
E. C and D.
Answer: E (34-35)
5. A hypothesis is:
A. Another term for the word “theory.”
B. A statement that links variables.
C. A term that applies only to research in the natural sciences.
D. A statement that applies only to quantitative research.
E. All of the above.
Answer: B (42)
6. Research questions emerge from which of the following:
B. A review of the research literature.
C. Previous research carried out by the researcher.
D. The researcher’s values, experiences, and curiosity.
E. All of the above.
Answer: E (44-45)
7. In studying a tattoo parlor, the researchers described in the book
developed a hypothesis about:
A. How customers choose tattoo designs.
B. How the tattoo artists learned their craft.
C. How tattoo artists create distance between themselves and their
D. How tattoo artists negotiate the legitimacy of their craft with the
Department of Public Health.
E. Why individuals choose to get tattooed.
Answer: C (45-47)
8. Paul Willis used a qualitative research strategy to answer the question:
A. How do school authorities “push out” high school students who
have low scores on standardized tests?
B. Why is there a higher drop-out rate among young men than among
C. Which schools have a high drop-out rate and what are the
organizational characteristics of those schools?
D. What problems do young men without secondary diplomas face in
the labor market?
E. How do young men of working class origin end up failing in
Answer: E (47-48)
9. Which of the following illustrates the “ecological fallacy”?
A. A researcher claims that youngsters’ school achievement is
influenced by the neighborhood in which they live.
B. A researcher claims that the local natural environment, such as
climate and soil type, influences culture.
C. A researcher claims that because neighborhoods with many
formerly incarcerated residents have high crime rates it is the
formerly incarcerated who are committing the crimes.
D. A researcher claims that when elderly people live in neighborhoods
with large proportions of elderly residents they are more likely to
report psychological distress.
E. A, C, and D are all examples.
Answer: C (40)
10. A researcher argues that people join the Tea Party because they have
unsatisfactory sex lives. This assertion is an example of:
E. The ecological fallacy.
Answer: D (41-42)
11. The best summary of the photo that accompanies Chapter 3 is:
A. It shows a tattoo artist working on the arm of a young white
B. It shows the intricate tattoos on the back and shoulders of a
member of the Yakuza, the Japanese criminal organization.
C. It shows a young white man with multiple pierces in his lips, nose,
D. It is a photo taken by Paul Willis of “the lads” engaging in horseplay
in front of their school in England.
E. It shows a polo match in progress, with many observers along the
sidelines in distinctly “preppy” sportswear.
Answer: A (43)
Short Essay Questions
1. What was the research question for the study of the tattoo parlor?
Answer: How do tattoo artists create distance between themselves and
their customers/”human canvas”? (45-47)
2. What were the research questions for Willis’s study of the lads?
Answer: How is school failure produced in interaction? How do the lads
learn rebellious behavior? What are the consequences of their specific
form of rebellion for themselves as individuals and for the working class
as a whole? (47-48)
Fill in the blanks
What are the Units of Analysis for the following questions? (39-40)
a. What types of colleges offer philosophy majors?
Answer: Colleges; organizations
b. What are the demographic characteristics and values of students
who select philosophy majors?
c. Are there differences among departments at your university in terms
of their cohesiveness?
d. What are the differences in the living conditions of homeless people
in Chicago and Paris? And how would we explain these differences?
Answer: Places and their culture—Chicago and Paris