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Educational Research Planning Conducting and Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Research 5th Revised Edition By John Creswell -Test Bank
Chapter 6. Analyzing and Interpreting Quantitative Data
For each question below, circle the correct or best answer.
- Which of the following represents an example of a summed score in quantitative data analysis?
- A score is calculated for each question on the instrument.
- A score is calculated for several questions on the instrument.
- A score is calculated summarizing differences in two scores.
- A score is based on a summed score for all individuals.
- From the statements below, select the best guideline to use for selecting a statistical program for your quantitative data analysis.
- The program is the recommendation of another student.
- The program has an app available for a mobile device or tablet.
- The program is produced as an open source software.
- The program has thorough documentation for procedures.
- When inspecting data, we examine the database for scores that are
- outside of the mean.
- outside of the median.
- outside of the accepted range.
- outside of the standard deviation.
- When inputting data into a computer program for data analysis, “values” are:
- the numbers associated with variables you are trying to measure.
- the response options to variables you are trying to measure.
- the quality of information for variables you are trying to measure.
- the identifying number for variables you are trying to measure.
- A quantitative researcher uses a data analysis computer program to sort the values of each variable into ascending order. The intent of this procedure is typically to
- clean up the data.
- compute the mean.
- answer a research question.
- develop the codebook.
- An individual who has completed your research survey instrument has not responded to question 10 and has chosen to leave it blank. For purposes of quantitative data analysis, how would you respond to this issue?
- Send the instrument back and ask the person to fill out the question.
- Delete the individuals survey completely from the database.
- Assign a value for missing information such as a –999.
- Re-contact the person and ask them why they did not respond.
- The standard deviation tells us
- the skewness of the distribution.
- the average value of the scores.
- the dispersion of the scores.
- the relative standing of a particular score.
- You are reading a research report summarizing the findings for a study of first-year teacher anxiety in the classroom. You read the following results:
“The average score for teachers on all items on the anxiety instrument was 65.76 with a standard deviation of 5.6. The scores varied from a low of 45 to a high of 75 on the instrument.”
What type of research question would likely result in this type of statement?
- A comparison question about teacher scores
- A relationship question correlating years of experience and anxiety
- A descriptive question measuring the anxiety of teachers
- A range of scores questions assessing the variability of scores
- The following steps are procedures in quantitative data analysis EXCEPT
- examining the trends in the data.
- determining effect sizes.
- scoring the data.
- analyzing the differences among themes.
- Which of the following factors is most important to consider in selecting an appropriate statistical test for a quantitative study?
- How many independent variables are in the data
- Whether the codes suggest it is appropriate
- How many research questions are in the study
- Whether the independent variable relates to the question
- The two areas at the end of a normal curve that indicate low probability values if the null hypothesis is true are called
- a two-tailed test.
- the critical region.
- the area of the true null.
- the significance level or alpha.
- Which of the following is a possible outcome of hypothesis testing?
- The beta weight of the null
- The probability of chi
- The effect size
- The probability of alpha
- If a researcher sets the alpha at .05 and obtains a p value of .06, this means that a null hypothesis would
- fail to be rejected.
- be slightly higher than alpha.
- be very close to the alpha level.
- be accepted as different.
- Examine the following statement found in the conclusion to a quantitative research study:
“One reason why the results were insignificant may be due to the small size of the sample and the use of a convenience, rather than a random, probability sample.”
This statement indicates that the researcher is (select the best response)
- summarizing the major results.
- providing an explanation for the results.
- sharing why evidence did not support predictions.
- suggesting future research to strength the study.
- In the parent involvement study (Deslandes & Bertrand, 2005), the researchers state a finding in paragraph 27:
“Parents’ perceptions of students’ invitations in the social domain was the most powerful predictor; it accounted for an additional 28% of the variance (beta = .35, p < .001).”
From looking at the p value you would conclude
- that the results were statistically significant.
- that the probability alpha level was set too low.
- that the authors should have set an exact p value.
- that the partial results indicated a significant p value of .001.
- Which of the following is an example of a figure used in quantitative research?
- A plot of interconnecting themes
- A joint display
- A scatterplot
- A normal curve
- If the probability value is less than or equal to the significance level, then you
- accept the null hypothesis.
- fail to reject the null hypothesis.
- revise the null hypothesis.
- reject the null hypothesis.
- Why it is important to check for effect size in addition to hypothesis testing?
Examine the following results reported in a quantitative study:
“The scores varied for band members (M=3.5), choir members (M=3.9), and for student athletes (M=5.4) for attitudes toward engaging in school activities during the 3-5 p.m. period of time. A comparison of the groups, at an alpha of .05, showed a statistically significant difference among the three groups, F(3,8)=9.87, p = .031, effect size = .91 SD.”
- As you examine this statement, you conclude: (place an X in the appropriate column)
- The null hypothesis was rejected. _____ ______
- The level of significance showed
a probability of rejection set at
5 out of 100 times. _____ ______
- The statistics test used was a t-test. _____ ______
- The magnitude of differences
among the groups was more than
one standard deviation. _____ ______
- Band members differed
significantly from student
athletes in their attitudes. _____ ______
- You have just received data on the question below and you plan to score it for quantitative computer analysis. On the line in front of each response category, indicate the score (e.g., 1-5) you would assign for that response when you entered the response into a data grid or file for computer data analysis.
“Students should be given an opportunity to wear tee-shirts with Joe Camel on them if they want to.”
____ Strongly agree
____ Strongly disagree
- Briefly define the mean.
- Briefly define the standard deviation.
- Briefly define the z score.
- Briefly define confidence intervals.
- Briefly define the meaning of descriptive statistics.
- Below are listed the steps in the process of testing a hypothesis in a quantitative study. Place the steps in order from 1 to 6 with 1 as the first step and 6 as the last step.
_______ Compute the sample statistic
_______ Establish the null hypothesis
_______ Collect data
_______ Make a decision about rejecting or failing to reject the null
_______ Set the level of significance (alpha)
_______ Determine the practical significance of the results
Chapter 7. Collecting Qualitative Data
For each question below, circle the correct or best answer.
- Which one of the following is the best reason why a qualitative proposal submitted to the institutional review board requires a more detailed description of procedures than a quantitative proposal?
- The board’s familiarity with qualitative approaches
- The attitudes of institutional review board members
- The length of the qualitative proposal
- The amount of time required for qualitative research
- Which of the following best describes a “gatekeeper” in qualitative research?
- The individual who maintains access to the institutional review board
- The individual who helps inform the researcher about the research site
- The individual who helps locate people and provides entrance to the site
- The individual who needs to give permission to conduct for the study
- A researcher decides to study one individual, a painter, who has distinguished herself for painting about children on the playground. What form of qualitative purposeful sampling would this represent?
- Extreme case sampling
- Distinctive case sampling
- Concept sampling
- Critical case sampling
- Under what circumstances would a qualitative researcher engage in sampling after a study begins?
- The qualitative research questions change.
- The study begins to lose participants who drop out.
- The researcher asks participants to recommend others.
- The researcher decides to develop a theory.
- Which one of the following provides a good reason for why qualitative researchers select only a few participants?
- The number of people available is typically small.
- With each additional participant, less depth is possible.
- The individuals who can answer the questions are few.
- The researcher does not want to generalize findings.
- Which of the following is the best example of a document collected by qualitative researchers?
- A quality rating scale
- A set of scores on a standardized test
- A grade card of a student
- A journal of experiences
- “Field notes” written by a researcher during a senior high school assembly are an example of what form of qualitative data?
- Notes taken at school
- Field experiences of the researcher
- Observational notes
- Material recorded by hand
- In your research study, you shadow or follow around a principal for a day. You sit in his office, you go with him to several classes, you go out to lunch with him, and you listen while he talks with parents, teachers, and students in the school. What form of observation are you engaged in?
- A changing observational role
- A “day-in-life” observational role
- A participant observational role
- An external observer observational role
- You are recording information on your observational protocol. What type of notes would you record on this protocol?
- Participant fieldnotes
- Reflective fieldnotes
- Observational fieldnotes
- Audio fieldnotes
- You plan to study and observe an adult literacy classroom at a local community college. What approach to observation would you probably first use when you go into the classroom?
- You would have someone announce your presence.
- You would sit quietly at the back of the room and observe.
- You would develop rapport with individuals in the room.
- You would write your name on the board to introduce yourself.
- What a disadvantage of using interviews in qualitative research?
- You cannot measures the variables.
- You cannot record ice-breakers in the conversation.
- The researcher hears what the interviewer wants to hear.
- The data are filtered through the researcher’s lens.
- What are the advantages of using focus groups in qualitative research?
- Interaction yields useful information.
- They are easier to transcribe than interviews.
- They tend to be easier for the researcher to take notes.
- They typically consist of four to six individuals.
- What type of ethical issues does collecting e-mail messages introduce in qualitative research?
- Whether individuals will respond to your message
- Whether you have permission to use their message
- Whether their message is an accurate statement
- Whether your message promotes a conversation
- Which of the following is an example of a clarifying probe?
- “Tell me more.”
- “What definition are you using?”
- “Could you explain that idea?”
- “You need to make more sense.”
- List two of the steps when collecting audio-visual material in qualitative research.
- What is the purpose of an interview or an observational protocol in qualitative research?
- It helps determine the appropriate procedure.
- It forms the basis for conducting data collection.
- It provides a form for the researcher to take notes.
- It offers an international process for researchers.
- Which of the following is a typical field issue that interviewers may encounter in qualitative research?
- Learning how to funnel from broad issues to narrow ones
- Establishing the correct codes
- Encouraging all participants to talk in a group interview
- Interpreting the participants’ responses
- From the following list, select the most important item to include on an interview protocol.
- Questions to gather participant demographics
- Possible probes associated with each question
- Prompts to record fieldnotes
- At least two numeric items
- One of the greatest disadvantages of conducing telephone interviews is that
- the researcher will not be able to record the interview.
- the researcher will not have probes in the protocol.
- the researcher may not be able to understand the interviewee’s perceptions as well.
- the researcher may have difficulty taking notes during the interview.
- Ethical issues often arise in collecting qualitative data. Which one of the following situations may raise an ethical issue in qualitative research?
- Participants may disclose sensitive information during interviews.
- Participants may talk openly about their indigenous culture.
- Participants may sign a waiver providing information to the researcher.
- Participants may withhold important information during an interview.
- Below are two forms of sampling:
Examine each reason for sampling below, and indicate with “random sampling ” or “purposeful sampling ” on the line what type it represents.
- Individuals are selected so that the researcher can generalize to the population ________
- Individuals are selected so that the researcher can develop a detailed understanding ________
- Individuals are selected to be representative of a population ________
- Individuals are selected so that the researcher can best understand a phenomenon ________
- A researcher shares her own struggles with “skipping school” as she interviews an at-risk high school student. What ethical issue is involved in this situation? Please explain.
- Describe what “changing observational roles” means. Second, indicate the situation in which you might engage in this observational practice in qualitative research.
It means _____________________________________________
- Indicate the situation in which you might engage in this observational practice in qualitative research.
I would use it when ____________________________________
- Which of the following points is most important when conducting qualitative interviews?
- Take good field notes.
- Find an open site for the interview.
- Audio-record the questions and responses.
- Obtain consent when the research is completed.