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Chapter 2 Current Practices for Meeting the Needs of Exceptional Learners
2.1 Multiple-Choice Questions
- Each of the following is a misconception about people with disabilities EXCEPT
- Research has established that inclusion is more effective than education in special classes.
- Professionals are in agreement about the extent to which technology can and should be used.
- Students with disabilities must be included in standardized testing.
- Considerable disagreement exists about whether early intervention for children with disabilities should be child directed or more teacher directed.
- Prereferral teams serve all of the following purposes EXCEPT
- developing IEPs for all students who need them.
- reducing the number of referrals to special education.
- establishing “ownership” of students with disabilities by general educators.
- recommending strategies for working with children who exhibit academic and behavioral problems.
- Response to intervention (RTI) is a prereferral model most often used in determining whether a child has a specific learning disability. In this model,
- the teacher’s anecdotal reports of student performance are used to determine a level of service.
- it is assumed that the general education teacher’s instruction is evidence-based and of high quality.
- professionals monitor student’s performance on standardized tests at different levels of support.
- students usually receive one to two hours of closely monitored support in a resource room.
- Response to intervention (RTI)
- has implications only for those with learning disabilities.
- is restricted to academic learning.
- can be applied to social behavior and academic learning.
- is the same as a prereferral team except that it is limited to students with learning disabilities.
- Research on prereferral teams and response to intervention has found that
- they result in more students being eligible for special education.
- academic achievement of students who are mainstreamed has increased.
- although they are popular, little is known about their effectiveness.
- teachers and administrators are not satisfied with the procedures.
- Frequent measures that provide information on whether a student is learning as expected are
- outcome measures.
- standardized assessments.
- progress monitoring assessments.
- measures of student achievement.
- Schools must provide an individualized program for each student who requires special education services. This means that
- each student must receive instruction on a one-to-one basis.
- an educational program must be written for each student who requires special education services.
- one individual must be responsible for each student’s education.
- the portion of the program that is individualized must be delivered by a teacher who is certified in special education.
- Each of the following components must be included on an individualized education program (IEP) EXCEPT
- annual goals.
- related services to be provided.
- student’s IQ score.
- instructional objectives.
- Which of the following represents the legally correct sequence of IEP development within planning of special education services?
- placement, development of IEP, evaluation
- development of IEP, evaluation, placement
- evaluation, development of IEP, placement
- evaluation, placement, development of IEP
- Which one of the following best describes an individual family service plan (IFSP)?
- a supplement to the IEP that specifies services that will be provided to the family of a student with disabilities
- a supplement to the IEP that identifies the role of family members in supporting the school’s program for a student with disabilities
- a type of IEP created for preschool children with disabilities
- an extension of the IEP that is used for secondary students who are making the transition from school to work
- Each of the following people is typically on an IEP team EXCEPT
- a parent or guardian.
- a provider of special education.
- the child’s general education teacher.
- a special education lawyer.
- The concept of transition involves more than just employment. It has a broad emphasis to include
- movement from general education to special education.
- more parental responsibility for meeting transition goals.
- concern for outcomes such as independent living and community adjustment.
- greater emphasis on vocational issues.
- What was the major accomplishment of IDEA and other federal laws with respect to transition?
- They provided funding for postsecondary programs.
- They extended the age range served by special education to include students up to
- They mandated that school districts pay for postsecondary schooling (including college tuition) for students under the age of 21 with disabilities.
- They required IEPs to contain a statement of needed transition services for students with disabilities 16 years or older.
- Educational services and placement for exceptional students depends on
- student characteristics and community resources.
- teacher attitudes and student preferences.
- both student and parental preferences.
- the category of exceptionality and parental preferences.
- The special education intervention that requires the least specialized environment is
- consultation by a special educator.
- instruction by an itinerant teacher.
- instruction in a resource room.
- instruction by a regular classroom teacher.
- Cain is a regular third-grade teacher. She teaches most subjects to all of her students; however, Mrs. Cleveland, a special educator, provides reading and math instruction to exceptional students in the class. She also teaches organizational and study skills to all the students. What type of intervention is modeled by these teachers? a. co-teaching
- itinerant services
- resource services
- Maria is enrolled in a general education classroom but is taught by a special education teacher in a special education classroom for an hour a day. What type of special education services does Leslie receive?
- She receives itinerant services.
- She receives resource services.
- She receives consultation services.
- She receives diagnostic-prescriptive services.
- Of the following, the special education intervention that represents the highest level of intensive instruction is
- instruction by an itinerant teacher.
- instruction in a diagnostic-prescriptive center.
- consultation by a special educator.
- instruction in a self-contained special education classroom.
- Homebound instruction is most often used for students who have
- a visual impairment.
- physical disabilities.
- mental retardation.
- a hearing impairment.
- Estella has a learning disability. Her primary placement is most likely a
- self-contained special education class.
- regular classroom.
- resource room.
- special day school.
- Jasper is a ten-year-old student with intellectual disabilities. According to IDEA, if he is placed in the least restrictive environment possible, he will receive instruction in
- his own home.
- a general education classroom with consultation by a special educator.
- both a general education classroom and a resource room.
- a general education classroom for the whole day.
- Some educators have suggested that the phrase “least restrictive environment” is not appropriate for describing the placement of students. Which term do they suggest as more accurate?
- most enabling environment
- most specialized environment
- least isolated environment
- most dedicated environment
- Nationwide, what percentage of students with disabilities is educated primarily in general education classrooms?
- less than 5
- nearly 15
- about 35
- more than 50
- Comparing No Child Left Behind (NCLB) and the Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA),
- each specifically exempts students with disabilities from participating in statewide assessments.
- neither contains language addressing whether students with disabilities are
required to participate in state-wide assessments.
- each requires that students with disabilities participate in state-wide assessments and that they show progress.
- each requires that students with disabilities participate in state-wide assessments, but unlike non-disabled students, they do not need to show progress.
- Each of the following is a basic strategy for helping students with disabilities to participate in the general education classroom EXCEPT
- homogeneous grouping.
- accommodations and adaptations.
- collaborative consultation.
- curriculum and instruction modifications.
- In collaborative consultation, the special education teacher
- teaches students with disabilities in the general education classroom.
- acts as an expert in providing advice to the general education teacher.
- shares daily decisions about programming with the regular education teacher equally.
- pulls out students with disabilities for special instruction in a resource room.
- In co-teaching,
- students take turns assuming the role of teacher.
- general and special educators teach together in the same classroom.
- general and special educators provide in-service training for each other.
- teachers and students take turns assuming the role of teacher.
- In cooperative learning,
- students work together in small homogeneous groups to solve problems or practice responses.
- students without disabilities tutor those with disabilities in small groups.
- students with and without disabilities work together in small groups to solve problems or practice responses.
- students with disabilities tutor those without disabilities in small groups.
- For students with disabilities, the objective of partial participation is
- exposure to activities experienced by all students.
- opportunity to model social skills and increased vocational training.
- maximize time on task and enhance self-esteem.
- mastery of functional academics and improved self-help skills.
- Bill is a student with low vision. His teacher provides him with a set of large-type notes at the beginning of each lecture. This is an example of
- tiered assignment.
- When teachers provide choices of activities on a single topic that vary in difficulty, they are using
- watered-down curriculum.
- partial participation.
- tiered assignments.
- According to one point of view, general education and special education teachers should work together but have distinctive roles. This point of view suggests that
- general education teachers are content specialists who should be trained by a special education coach.
- general education teachers can gradually take the place of special education teachers.
- special educators have no more specialized expertise in teaching individualized curricula than do general educators.
- the popular co-teaching model of collaboration provides the required kind of intensive instruction needed by students with disabilities.
- All teachers must be prepared to work with exceptional students for all of the following reasons EXCEPT
- Most exceptional students are in the general education classroom for part of the day.
- Most teachers have the supports needed to work in the general education classroom with students of all exceptionalities.
- Many students who are not identified as being in need of services share characteristics of those who are.
- Radical reforms of special education threaten special education as a separate, identifiable part of education.
- A subject of one of the Video Examples in the chapter, Tiffany Moody, created a power point focused on her son, who has Asperger syndrome. The purpose of the power point was to
- present him in a positive light to the IEP team and help them put a name and face with a diagnosis.
- help him stay motivated when doing his homework.
- help her and her husband remain positive about his potential to improve.
- keep a record of his progress in meeting developmental milestones.
- All teachers should expect to participate in educating students with disabilities. Which one of the following responsibilities is a general education classroom teacher LEAST likely to have?
- evaluating academic abilities
- managing serious behavior problems
- participating in writing individualized educational programs
collaborating with other professionals
- In one of the Video Examples, a first-year special education teacher stresses how important ________ has been in helping her plan for instruction.
- the classic, Experience and Education, by John Dewey
- the classic, Beyond Freedom and Dignity, by B. F. Skinner
- yoga and meditation
- having time to meet with other teachers
- Lopez, a second grade teacher, has concerns about Delroy’s progress in math. Before she makes a referral for special education, she should
- discuss her concerns with Delroy.
- administer an intelligence test.
- discuss her concerns with Delroy’s parents.
- consult with specialists at a diagnostic-prescriptive center.
- Before making a referral for special education, a general education classroom teacher should do all of the following EXCEPT
- modify or adapt the student’s instructional program.
- communicate concerns to parents.
- examine student’s school record.
- administer diagnostic tests.
- What makes special education “special” is
- instruction that it alone uses.
- the more qualified teachers involved in it.
- instruction that is altered to meet the needs of exceptional learners.
- the quantity of services provided.
- In the Video Example about accommodations introduced by Dr. Tom Smith, the special education teacher makes the point that
- it is categorically unfair for special education students be allowed more time than the rest of the students to complete assignments.
- allowing special education students extended time for completing assignments is largely a “waste of time, no pun intended” because they too often end up “goofing off.”
- allowing extended time for special education students should focus on before instruction as well as after instruction.
- allowing special education students extended time on assignments is fair, but allowing them extended time on tests is unfair to other students.
- Special education teachers must attain special expertise in
- delivering large-group instruction.
- using technology.
- cooperative learning.
- The key to improving special education is
- knowledge of special education law.
- management of serious behavior problems.
- exceptional instruction.
- use of technological advances.
- The Common Core State Standards Initiative’s document, “Application to Students with
Disabilities,” states that students with disabilities
- should not be held accountable regarding the general education curriculum.
- should be allowed to have a copy of the test one-week in advance of its administration.
- should not receive any accommodations on the test.
- might need to have instructional supports by, for example, by presenting material in multiple ways.
- All of the following statements are TRUE about the Common Core State Standards
- Some are fearful that the standards will not be in the best interests of many students with disabilities.
- Research documents that, when states mandate that students with disabilities must take a Common Core State Standards test, the achievement of these students improves dramatically.
- There is a heavy emphasis on access to the general education curriculum for students with disabilities.
- Questions remain, such as should special accommodations be made in assessing progress toward a standard.
- Considering the needs of all potential users, including those with disabilities, when developing a technology is referred to as
- inclusive technology.
- universal design.
- intuitive planning.
- intuitive design.
- Each of the following is an issue/controversy concerning universal design or the use of technology for people with disabilities EXCEPT
- deciding when the limits of universal design have been reached.
- deciding when the use of technology is in a person’s best interest.
- unnecessary cost associated with having to consider the relatively small population of people with disabilities when designing technology.
- the potential for dependence on technology at the cost of learning to do something independent of technology.
- Which statement about the standards-based reform movement is TRUE?
- There are fully funded, Federal programs that provide enriched learning experiences for all students.
- The curriculum for students with disabilities often has been different from the curriculum in general education.
- IDEA requires inclusion of all students with disabilities, except those with sensory impairments, in national assessments of educational progress.
- Extracurricular programs that are being eliminated tend to be those that students with disabilities are typically excluded from or fail at anyway.
- Assessments that compare a student’s performance with that of other students are all of the following EXCEPT
- outcome measures.
- standardized assessments.
- progress monitoring assessments.
- measures of student achievement.
- Accommodations for evaluation procedures of students with disabilities might include all of the following EXCEPT
- altering the time given for responding.
- changing the setting in which assessment is done.
- providing verbal prompts to the student during testing.
- using an alternative format for presentation of tasks or type of response allowed.
- Standardized tests
- have no place in special education.
- should be used to compare students with disabilities before and after they receive special.
- can be used effectively to compare students with disabilities to those without disabilities.
- are useful for making instructional decisions.
2.2 True/False Questions
- Research evidence suggests that response to intervention is more effective than prereferral teams at reducing the number of students referred for special education.
- The individualized education program (IEP) is not required to be a written statement; however, the parents must agree to the teacher’s plans before the student is enrolled.
- The least restrictive environment (LRE) is not always the general education classroom.
- Most students with disabilities spend the majority of their school day in special education, self-contained classrooms.
- Partial participation refers to the practice of having students with disabilities integrated for part of the school day and in a special class for the remainder of the day.
- Public school systems must make extensive efforts to screen and identify all children and youths of school age who have disabilities.
- Supporters of “standards-based” reforms feel that teachers have expected too much of all students.
- Students with disabilities are not excluded from participation in standardized assessment procedures.
- Virtually all early childhood educators agree that young children with disabilities and those considered “at risk” should be in inclusive programs.
- Schools are not required to provide employment-related services to students with disabilities.
2.3 Short Answer Questions
- Describe the relationship between prereferral teams and response to intervention.
- Describe the Multi-tiered Model for Identification and explain why it is used.
- Indicate the purpose of an individualized education program (IEP) and explain why it is not appropriate to make a placement decision for a student before an IEP has been written for that student. Provide an example to clarify your explanation.
- Discuss the effect of recent legislation on early identification and transition.
- What does the term “least restrictive environment” mean when applied to education for exceptional children? Provide an example to support your explanation.
- Describe three practices that contribute to the integration of students with disabilities into the general education classroom and comment on research support for each choice.
- Discuss the controversy surrounding the relationship between special and general education and describe reasons behind reform proposals.
- Compare and contrast the roles of special educators and general educators.
- Describe the relationship between the concept of universal design for learning (UDL) and the pros and cons of using available technology in an effort to allow people with disabilities to function more like those without disabilities.
- Discuss the rationale for “standards-based” reforms and describe problems with how special education fits into this movement.
Chapter 2 Current Practices for Meeting the Needs of Exceptional Learners Answer Key
2.1 Multiple Choice Questions
2.2 True/False Questions
2.3 Short Answer Questions
1. Both prereferral teams and the techniques used with response to intervention are
directed toward reducing the number of students who are identified as requiring
special education services because of poor or missing instruction. Prereferral teams
are groups of professionals who work with general education teachers to help identify
alternative educational strategies for students who are struggling in the classroom
before a referral for special education is made. Response to intervention is also aimed
at students who are struggling in the general education classroom, but it is more
structured, involving specific levels of intervention with emphasis on research-based
instruction and careful monitoring of student progress.
2. Response to Intervention seeks to reduce the number of students identified for special
education services, but its use for the purpose of identification has been questioned in
the research. As one model of RTI, the three-tiered approach seeks to improve this
situation. In this approach, all students are screened to determine if they are at risk for
school failure and are given research-based instruction with frequent monitoring (tier
1). Students who show problems in learning go on to receive more intensive
instruction with different formats (like small group) and continue to be monitored (tier
2) while the other students continue with tier 1 methods. If students in tier 2 improve,
they may return to tier 1, or may remain in tier 2. For students who do not respond to
tier 2, a multidisciplinary team convenes to conduct a full evaluation and plan an IEP.
In tier 3, those students receive special education services in the most appropriate
setting for their needs.
3. Perhaps the most important tool used to implement IDEA, it is a written statement
that spells out what teachers plan to do to meet an exceptional student’s needs, and it
must be approved by the students’ parents or guardian. What the student needs is
supposed to be determined first so that a decision can be made about placement in the
least restrictive environment in which the needed services can be provided. For
example, if a student has been evaluated and identified as having a learning disability,
he could be placed in a school’s existing “learning disabilities program” and have an
IEP written to match the services available in that program. More appropriately and
legally correct, the IEP should be written for the student immediately after evaluation
and identification. It could be that the services needed by the student could all be
provided in the regular classroom, or that some entirely new services need to be
developed in any other existing placements. There should be no “programs” specific
to a disability category; the programs should be specific to individuals.
4. Federal laws require that services be available to infants and toddlers who are
identified as having disabilities and that an individualized family service plan (IFSP)
be developed (similar to an IEP). Regulations stipulate that the family be involved in
the development of the IFSP. Federal laws, including IDEA require that transition
plans be included within older students’ IEPs. The legislation recognizes that
transition involves more than just employment. Such legislation has led to improved
services, sometimes first-ever services, for a huge number of individuals, expanding
the ages of people eligible to receive services from birth to age 21.
5. Although some people argue that the LRE is always the regular classroom for all
students regardless of exceptionality or special needs, the legal intent of LRE is that a
student should be separated from classmates without disabilities, home, family, and
community as little as possible. Intervention should be consistent with individual
needs and not interfere with individual freedom any more than is necessary. This does
not preclude the established continuum of placements. For example, a student whose
special needs can be met in the regular classroom should not be placed in a more
restrictive environment; likewise, a student whose needs are not being met in the
regular classroom should not be kept in that setting if his or her needs could more
effectively be met in another, more physically (though not necessarily more
psychologically) restrictive environment.
6. Answers will vary with elaboration on the following choices: prereferral teams and
response to intervention (may improve early intervention, but questionable as a means
for identifying disabilities), collaborative consultation, cooperative teaching,
cooperative learning, curricula and instructional strategies, or instructional
accommodations and adaptations.
7. Some radical educational reformers believe that special education should be
eliminated as a separate part of education. They call for a unified system in which all
students are viewed as special and entitled to the same quality of education. In this
system, all teachers would receive the same training and be expected to perform the
same role. Supporters of special education as a separate system argue that the needs of
students with exceptionalities historically were not met in the regular classroom and
are not likely to be so in a completely merged system. They believe that some
students require special, sometimes separate interventions to be successful. One
reason behind reform proposals is concern for pupils who are considered at risk.
Should special education be expanded to meet the needs of these students? Or could a
merged system (that retains the financial resources of special education) make regular
education better able to respond to these students?
8. All educators are expected to make maximum effort to accommodate individual
students’ needs through flexibility, adaptations, and accommodations. They must all
be able to report specifically and precisely how students can and cannot perform in
the areas for which they are responsible. They must be knowledgeable about and
skillful with prereferral and referral practices. They must be willing and able to work
with others by participating in eligibility conferences, helping to write IEPs,
communicating with parents or guardians, and collaborating with others to help meet
students’ needs. They must also be able to offer useful information at due process
hearings. Special educators must attain expertise in other areas as well. They must be
skilled in academic instructional strategies that are effective with students who have
learning problems. They must master behavior management techniques and write
positive behavior intervention plans for students who have serious behavior problems.
They must be able to evaluate the potential effectiveness of available technologies
(especially for use with students who have sensory or physical disabilities). And, they
need to be familiar with laws and provisions if they are to be successful advocates for
students with disabilities.
9. The concept of UDL often involves the development of new technologies to make
learning accessible to more students. Inventors and designers try to account for every
potential use and problem, but at some point, the technology has to be developed and
marketed, and it may not, in fact, be useful to some groups of people. There is a
danger in taking the term “universal” too literally: technology and new techniques will
still need to be individualized or “customized” for some people. Sometimes
technology imposes new limitations on people with disabilities: it may allow them to
go into new areas (physical or mental) without supports that may be needed. It results
in controversial issues (should disabilities be corrected before birth?). Use of new
technology does not always produce better learning. Another issue is the prohibitive
cost of new technology.
10. Reformers believe that teachers’ expectations have been too low and that all students
should be held to higher standards of performance, including students with
disabilities. Students with disabilities should be able to learn the general curriculum
and perform at a level comparable to students without disabilities. Answers should
elaborate on difficulties involved with deciding what curriculum should be, what the
standards should be, how they will be measured, and the consequences of failing to
meet the standards.