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Test Bank1 for Food and Culture 6e
Chapter 2: Traditional Health Beliefs and Practices
Multiple Choice Questions
1. Approximately what percentage of adults in the U.S. used some form of CAM during the year 2007?
2. Which of the following might be used as a definition of the biomedical viewpoint of health and
a. For disease to be present, there must be a physical cause; get rid of the cause (e.g., bacteria or
virus) and the disease will be eliminated.
b. All disease comes from the words “dis” meaning opposite and “ease” meaning comfort. Make
sure the spirit world is “comforted” and disease will be cured (e.g., sacrifice something prized to
c. Mind and body are one unit, and to treat disease both the intangible world of the mind and the
physical body must be taken into consideration (treat the whole person within his or her
environment for symptoms to resolve).
3. What is the belief of the “majority American worldview” in regard to fate?
a. Believes in personal control over fate
b. Believes fate controls the future
c. Believes illness is a result of fate
d. Only believes in fate if prescribed by physician
4. A monochronistic view of time suggests:
a. doing several things at once.
b. doing only two things at a time.
c. doing one thing at a time.
d. doing nothing.
5. What ethnicity believes that fulfilling social obligations is essential to health and that disharmony
with family or village members can result in illness?
b. African Americans
c. Middle Easterners
d. Pacific Islanders
6. When sickness is assumed to be due to the actions of the patient, reasons for illness might include
a. bad weather, allergens, and pollution.
b. viruses, bacteria, and parasites.
c. food and exercise choices.
d. interpersonal disharmony.
1 By Tawni Holmes, Ph.D., R.D., University of Central Oklahoma
7. When a health care provider imposes her or his beliefs, practices, and values on a patient from
another culture, what is this termed?
a. Supernatural powers
b. Cultural imposition
d. Biomedical approach
8. Expression of emotions through bodily complaints is called
a. sympathetic qualities.
b. the biomedical approach.
9. A state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being, not merely the absence of disease, defines
a. Biomedical approach
b. Holistic medicine
c. Botanical remedies
10. General dietary guidelines for health that are similar to those of the U.S. have been developed for
many countries, and usually include what concept(s)?
a. Five food groups
b. Using foods as medicine because of their intrinsic properties
c. Balance and moderation
d. Calorie restriction and physical activity
11. Categorizing foods into “hot” and “cold” categories is a system used in a variety of cultures. Cultural
groups we have studied that use this system include those of
a. the Middle East.
b. parts of Latin America.
c. Italy and France.
d. a and b
e. a, b, and c
12. Sympathetic medicine and sympathetic magic use the word sympathetic to mean
a. agreeably suited to disposition or mood.
b. vibrations from being in harmony.
c. items that have characteristics similar to human body parts or organs.
13. Different cultures define illness differently. Which of the following is NOT considered a cause for
illness by some culture in the world?
a. Personal actions
b. Natural causes
c. Inappropriate social interactions
d. Supernatural or magical causes
e. All are explanations of illness used by some cultures
14. Culture-bound syndromes are
a. a holistic view of the total experiences of the patient.
b. healers chosen by cost and convenience.
c. culturally defined folk illnesses that may be difficult to treat if not actually considered an illness.
d. always due to witches and conjury issues.
15. Witches, sorcerers, root doctors, and so on have the power to manipulate the natural or supernatural
b. evil spirits.
d. humor systems.
16. What are the most common type(s) of therapeutic substances?
a. Biomedical pharmaceuticals
c. Diet prescriptions
d. All of the above
e. a and c
17. In what type of medicine is the body aided to heal itself through non-invasive natural treatments?
c. Supernatural healing
18. Cultures use different therapies to cure illness. The practice of _____ is based on the tenant that “like
a. folk healing
c. ayurvedic medicine
d. naturopathic medicine
19. What act defines dietary supplements as separate from food and drugs?
d. Botanical Labeling Act
20. The consecutive or concurrent use of multiple health care systems is called
a. biomedical healing.
b. dual medicine.
c. medical pluralism.
d. ayurvedic medicine.
21. Approximately how much do Americans currently spend on complementary and alternative
a. $11 billion
b. $40 billion
c. $1 million
d. $350 thousand
22. The ancient Asian Indian system of healing is called
b. holistic therapy.
c. ayurvedic medicine.
d. traditional Chinese medicine.
23. The “majority” describes what group in the United States?
a. A multicultural mix of all cultures
b. Most whites, plus other ethnic groups with similar views
c. Mexican American immigrants
d. Whites and Native Americans
24. Which cultural group is an example of one that believes family should be involved in all health care
b. Middle Easterners
d. None of the above
25. In which of the following areas does the biomedical worldview differ from the majority U.S. view?
a. Personal control of fate
b. Relationship to nature
c. Role of the individual
d. Perceptions of time
e. None of the above
26. The number of adults over 65 years of age in the U.S. is expected to double by what year?
27. In relation to health, what type of attributes are most commonly associated with well-being?
a. Behavioral characteristics
b. Physical (i.e., skin, hair sheen, weight)
c. Clinical features such as sore throat
d. Routine laboratory measures
28. What type of medicine uses pulses associated with internal organs, each with its own characteristics?
a. Ayurvedic medicine
c. Holistic medicine
d. Traditional Chinese medicine
29. Thinness is often associated with poor diet and disease in all of the following cultures except
b. Caribbean Islander.
c. Middle Eastern.
d. American Indian.
e. Thinness is associated with disease in all of these cultures.
30. The yin and yang system of dietary planning is dominant in what cultural group?
31. The hot-cold classification of foods identifies characteristics in the natural world associated with body
humors; which of the following is not one?
32. What term is used for the entire disease-illness process?
33. Of the following, which is NOT one of the causes of disease as explained in the biomedical culture?
a. Immediate causes (e.g., bacterial infection)
b. Underlying cause (e.g., high cholesterol)
c. Ultimate cause (e.g., environmental stresses)
d. All of the above are causes
34. Which of the following would be an example of sickness due to the patient?
a. Heart disease from eating fatty foods
b. Getting struck by lightning
c. Sickness from a virus
d. All of the above
35. The use of astrology for determining the health status of a person coincides with what belief about
a. Sickness is due to the social world.
b. Sickness is due to the patient.
c. Sickness is due to the natural world.
d. None of the above
36. Wind or bad air as a way of causing sickness is of particular concern to what cultural group?
d. All of the above
37. A gaze that is believed by many to project harm on another person is called
a. a stare.
b. the evil eye.
d. a seizure.
38. All of the following are persons who perform conjury except
b. underworld men.
c. voodoo doctors.
d. mano negro.
39. What is the term for addressing the experience of illness, alleviating the infirmities of the sick, and
responding to the personal, familial, and social issues surrounding sickness?
b. Holistic medicine
40. Who is most likely to use complementary and alternative medicine in the U.S.?
a. Mid- to-upper class women
b. Young men
c. The elderly
d. The poor who can’t afford health care
41. Many botanical remedies are derived from plants and herbs. In general, the term botanical would
a. leafy parts only used as teas.
b. leafy parts and roots used in tisanes.
c. all therapeutic parts of all plants.
d. roots only, especially ground up and used in supplements.
e. all parts that contain antioxidants.
42. Healers who specialize in the use of herbal preparations in the American South are called
a. witch doctors.
b. voodoo practitioners.
c. root doctors.
d. none of the above
43. What is the practice where a spoon or coin is rubbed across the skin for healing or to relieve tension
44. To relieve yin (too much cold), a small burning bundle of herbs is used to restore balance of energy.
What is this procedure called?
45. Sacred healers with exceptional powers among the Native American groups are called
a. medicine men.
d. faith healers.
_____ 1. The view of an individual’s relationship to fate is seldom related to the perception of time.
_____ 2. Cultural imposition can be defined as a tendency for health personnel to impose their beliefs,
practices, and values upon another culture because they believe their views are superior.
_____ 3. The American majority value that all people should have equal access to care is shared by
almost all cultures worldwide.
_____ 4. Traditional views of health and illness often encompass a mind-body duality.
_____ 5. Materialism would predict that the emotions or the beliefs of the patient are not important in
_____ 6. Asians often believe that the yin and the yang of their surroundings and environment need to
be kept in balance for cosmic and personal harmony and health.
_____ 7. Traditional views of being thin are seldom negative and do not have underlying associations
with poor diet and disease.
_____ 8. “Hot” and “cold” associations between food and health would suggest that a “cold”
condition be treated with a “hot” food for health maintenance.
_____ 9. In a traditional culture, the evil eye can be blamed for causing illness when an envious enemy
_____ 10. The future orientation of the biomedical model expects patients to put up with a high level of
pain and discomfort in the present for the future health benefit.
a. Majority American value
b. Other cultural groups
_____ 1. Time dominates
_____ 2. Indirectness/ritual/”face”
_____ 3. Materialism
_____ 4. Fate determines what happens
_____ 5. Informality
Short Essay Questions
1. Cultural outlook or worldview affects expectations about personal and public conduct. Briefly
describe why role expectations, conduct, and social interactions are described as a continuum. How
does acculturation affect this continuum?
2. How might “cultural imposition” affect a new immigrant’s interaction with the standard health care
system in the United States?
3. The biomedical model holds that there are three levels of possible causes of disease. List these levels
and give an example of each.
4. What are three examples of complementary, alternative, or unconventional healing therapies? What
is done and what is the cultural explanation of why they are expected to work?
5. What are three modes of effective care in the transcultural nursing theory?
Answer Key for Chapter 2
1. c (p. 35)
2. a (p. 39)
3. a (p. 36)
4. c (p. 36)
5. d (p. 39)
6. c (p. 44)
7. b (p. 37)
8. c (p. 39)
9. d (p. 39)
10. c (p. 41)
11. d (p. 42)
12. c (p. 42)
13. e (pp. 43-44)
14. c (p. 45)
15. c (p. 44)
16. e (p. 47)
17. d (p. 48)
18. b (p. 48)
19. a (p. 47)
20. c (p. 50)
21. b (p. 35)
22. c (p. 35)
23. b (p. 36)
24. b (p. 37)
25. e (pp. 37-39)
26. b (p. 38)
27. b (p. 40)
28. d (p. 40)
29. e (p. 40)
30. a (p. 41)
31. b (p. 42)
32. a (p. 43)
33. d (p. 43)
34. a (p. 44)
35. c (p. 44)
36. d (p. 44)
37. b (p. 44)
38. d (p. 44)
39. d (p. 46)
40. a (p. 47)
41. c (p. 47)
42. c (p. 48)
43. b (p. 48)
44. c (p. 48)
45. a (p. 50)
1. F (p. 36)
2. T (p. 37)
3. F (p. 38)
4. T (p. 39)
5. T (p. 39)
6. T (p. 39)
7. F (p. 40)
8. T (p. 42)
9. T (p. 44)
10. T (p. 39)
1. a (p. 36)
2. b (pp. 36, 37)
3. a (p. 36)
4. b (p. 36)
5. a (pp. 36, 37)
Short Essay Questions (page references)
1. pp. 35-37, 40-41, 50-51
2. pp. 37, 50
3. p. 43
4. pp. 47-50
5. pp. 50-51