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Chapter 2 Test Items
1. Research studies are primarily built on trust between
a. researchers and participants.
b. researchers and the IRB.
c. participants and the IRB.
d. researchers and professional organizations.
2. When in need of ethical guidance, where should a researcher first look?
a. A colleague
c. Professional organizations
d. A textbook
3. One professional organization offering ethical guidance in social science research is the
a. Alternative Education Resource Organization.
b. Council for Educational Research.
c. American Bar Association.
d. American Psychological Association.
4. Which act authorized the creation of the National Commission for the Protection of
Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research?
a. Individuals with Disabilities Act
b. National Research Act of 1974
c. Civil Rights Act
d. No Child Left Behind
5. Most hospitals, colleges, and universities have a review group, usually called the Human
Subjects Review Committee or the
a. Institutional Review Board.
b. Internal Review Board.
c. Research Review Board.
d. Ethics Guidance Committee.
6. What is the minimum number of members needed to constitute an HSRC or IRB?
7. The most basic and important ethical issue in research is the
a. assurance of sound methodology.
b. protection of participants.
c. guidance of researchers.
d. assurance of publishable results.
8. The process through which a participant agrees to participate in research of their own free
will and is informed of their rights as a participant is known as obtaining
a. involuntary participation.
b. rights to study.
c. permission to study.
d. informed consent.
9. Which of the following populations cannot give informed consent?
c. Adults in a non-deceptive study
d. Deidentified adult participants
10. When can a research participant choose to withdraw from a research study?
a. Only during the consent process
b. Within one week of data collection
c. At any time
d. Only at the conclusion of the study
11. If the identity of the participant is hidden from the researcher, the data are
12. When a researcher knows the identity of a participant but does NOT disclose this identity,
then the data are considered to be
13. The Family Education Rights and Privacy Act of 1974 is also referred to as the
a. Research Amendment.
b. Johnson Amendment.
c. Freedom Amendment.
d. Buckley Amendment.
14. A common ethical dilemma in research that occurs when a researcher wants to study a
topic that he/she cannot disclose completely to participants without influencing behavior
or responses is known as
15. One major way qualitative research differs from quantitative research is that qualitative
a. personally engage in the research process.
b. conduct more rigorous research.
c. conduct less rigorous research.
d. follow more stringent ethical standards.
16. Action researchers are both researchers and
b. change agents.
c. ethics reviewers.
17. Gaining entry to a school research site usually requires participation from a
a. university IRB.
b. school or district level administrator.
c. trusted colleague.
18. The first code of the American Anthropological Code of ethics is to
a. avoid harm.
b. be transparent.
c. obtain informed consent.
d. make results accessible.
19. A research study in which the research plan evolves and changes as the researcher is
immersed in the research process is most likely what classification of study?
20. An institutional review board must include at least one
Chapter 2 Answers