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1. Epigenetics refers to changes in
a. genes from one generation to the next.
b. the heritability of traits and behaviors.
c. the mechanisms that turn genes on and off.
d. the ways information can be acquired.
2. Lactose intolerance is one example of how
a. culture can produce a shift in the genetics of a population.
b. diet can have a direct impact on a person’s genes.
c. environment is much more important than genetics.
d. mutations generally lead to negative consequences.
3. The phenotype represents the
a. complete set of human genes.
b. environment in which genes are expressed.
c. observed traits of the individual.
d. traits inherited through the sperm and the egg.
4. The job of a gene is to encode the production of a(n)
5. The concept of gene expression refers to the fact that genes
a. can be turned on and off.
b. can have an effect on emotions.
c. encode proteins, not behaviors.
d. produce behavioral outcomes.
6. The DNA synthesis of RNA is called
Ray, Evolutionary Psychology Test Bank Questions Ch. 3, p. 2
7. Each strand of DNA consists of _____ types of nucleotides.
8. Homeotic, or Hox, genes control
a. mating behaviors and sexual orientation.
b. social behavior such as grooming.
c. the timing of development of body parts.
d. transitory changes in behavior.
9. The structure of DNA in chimpanzees and humans is about _____% the same.
10. Females carry two copies of the X chromosome, whereas males carry
a. one X and one Y.
b. only an X.
c. only a Y.
d. two Y chromosomes.
11. The production of gametes requires that the DNA be replicated and the diploid number of
chromosomes reduced to haploid; this process is called
Ray, Evolutionary Psychology Test Bank Questions Ch. 3, p. 3
12. The single cell that is produced by the union of a sperm cell and an egg cell is called a(n)
13. When a person has two copies of the same allele, they are said to be _____ for that allele.
14. Mendel’s first law states that for a recessive trait to appear, both nondominant elements
must be present; this is also know as the law of
a. independent assortment.
15. When one encounters genes that violate Mendel’s second law, it suggests that they reside
close together on the same chromosome. This phenomenon is referred to as
16. Until Landsteiner’s discovery of _____, it was not known why some individuals died from
b. blood typing
Ray, Evolutionary Psychology Test Bank Questions Ch. 3, p. 4
17. _____ is the situation in which non-identical alleles produce two separate phenotypes at the
same time; an example is AB blood type.
18. Although sickle cell anemia can cause a variety of physiological problems, its presence also
confers a resistance to
19. One complicated type of inheritance pattern is _____, in which a phenotype is expressed
that is in between the two alleles.
b. incomplete dominance
20. Sickle cell anemia is a classic example of _____, a process whereby two or more
phenotypes can be influenced by a single gene.
21. The “central dogma” of molecular biology states that genes
a. are carried on chromosomes.
b. are not changed by experience.
c. can express more than one phenotype.
d. do not exist to give us diseases.
22. Research suggests that fathers who smoked early in life are more likely to have sons with
heavier weight at age 9. This is an example of _____ inheritance.
Ray, Evolutionary Psychology Test Bank Questions Ch. 3, p. 5
23. _____ are structures within a cell that are involved in the production of energy. It is assume
they descended from bacteria that began to live inside single-celled organisms more than a
billion years ago.
24. When the later genetics of a larger population can be traced to a limited number of
individuals, this is referred to as a _____ effect.
25. Which of the following has NOT been demonstrated by mitochondrial DNA analysis?
a. All humans have a common female ancestor.
b. Dogs were domesticated from wolves 15,000 years ago.
c. Neandertals and early humans may have mated.
d. Neandertals are not closely related to humans.
26. The _____ can sometimes be used to trace the ancestry of an individual. One famous
example of this Genghis Khan.
b. Punnett square
d. Y chromosome
27. Jack and Jill are twins. Which of the following statements about them is correct?
a. They can be either monozygotic or dizygotic.
Ray, Evolutionary Psychology Test Bank Questions Ch. 3, p. 6
b. They cannot be dizygotic.
c. They must be dizygotic.
d. They must be monozygotic.
28. Using twin studies, personality factors such as extraversion have been shown to have a
_____% contribution of genetic factors.
29. _____ examines generations of families and looks for the association betwee particular DNA
marker alleles and particular traits, commonly done for psychological and physiological
disorders that run in families, such as depression or bipolar disorder.
a. correlational analysis
b. factor analysis
c. linkage analysis
30. Which of the following is NOT one of the four DNA nucleotide bases?
1. _____ carry the instructions that direct the expression of particular traits.
2. The complete set of human genes is referred to as the _____.
3. The _____ consists of what is inherited through the sperm and the egg at the moment of
Ray, Evolutionary Psychology Test Bank Questions Ch. 3, p. 7
4. A sequence of three bases along a single RNA strand is called a _____.
5. A DNA molecule along with the proteins that are attached to it is called a(n) _____.
6. The process of cell division is called _____; during this process, each chromosome is first
replicated to form identical pairs that are joined at the centromere.
7. Sperm cells and egg cells are collectively known as _____.
8. As a result of _____, the chromosomes of gamete cells is not identical to the parent cell.
9. Mendel learned that the inheritance of one trait is not affected by the inheritance of another
trait; this is known as Mendel’s second law, or the law of _____.
Ans: independent assortment
10. A common method of diagramming the probable inheritance of dominant and recessive
traits is the _____ method.
11. Each of the approximately 20,000 human genes occurs at a specific site, called a(n) _____,
on one of our 24 different pairs of chromosomes.
12. Because the X and Y chromosomes are different and do not contain identical genes, this
sets up the possibility for transmission of traits that can be different for males and females; this
is known as _____. An example of this is color blindness, which is much more common in men
than in women.
Ans: sex-linked inheritance
13. Because _____ does not recombine, it is very stable and mutates very slowly; thus, it is
possible to use it to trace evolutionary time over the generations.
Ans: mitochondrial DNA or mtDNA
Ray, Evolutionary Psychology Test Bank Questions Ch. 3, p. 8
14. _____ is a situation in which alleles of one gene mask the expression of another gene’s
alleles such that an expected phenotype does not appear.
15. _____ refers to the possibility that individuals with different genotypes may respond to the
same environment in different ways.
Ans: gene by environment interaction
16. The _____ represents the observed traits of the individual, including morphology,
physiology, and behavior.
17. _____ is the process whereby the RNA determines the sequence of amino acids in the
building of a protein.
18. The pinched-in region of the chromosome is called the _____.
19. The ends of the chromosome are called the
20. The _____ is a way of representing the chromosomal contents of a cell, including the
number of chromosomes followed by a description of the sex chromosomes.
1. Explain the inheritance pattern of mitochondrial DNA. Discuss how mtDNA has been used to
trace the evolutionary past. What are some of the findings from this research?
● mtDNA only inherited from mother, is very stable, mutates very slowly, can be used as a
● human mtDNA traced back to single female 150,000-200,000ya
● dogs domesticated from grey wolves 15,000ya
● human migration patterns
Ray, Evolutionary Psychology Test Bank Questions Ch. 3, p. 9
2. Explain Mendel’s two laws. What are some examples of genetic inheritance that violate
● First law (segregation): both nondominant genes must be present for recessive trait to
● Second law (independent assortment): inheritance of one trait not affected by
inheritance of another trait.
● Sex-linked inheritance; e.g., color blindness.
● Codominance: e.g., human blood typing.
● Incomplete dominance; e.g., red and white snapdragon pigments.
● Pleiotropy; e.g., sickle cell anemia
● Epigenetic inheritance; e.g., diet of parent, diabetes in offspring
● Mitochondrial inheritance; e.g., founder effect
3. What is behavioral genetics? Explain how twin and generational studies are used to study
this. What are some of the major findings?
● Study of genetic and environmental contributions to behavior (gene by environment
● MZ twins share 100% of their genes, DZ twins 50%, but both kinds share similar
● Genetic factor for schizophrenia.
● Personality factors such as extraversion 50% genetic.
● Intelligence 70% in high SES environments, much less in low SES environments.
● Linkage analysis for psychological disorders that run in families, such as depression or
4. Compare and contrast the two forms of cell division, mitosis and meiosis.
● Both start with diploid parent cell.
● Mitosis results in two daughter cells, diploid and identical to parent cell.
● Meiosis results in four daughter cells, haploid and not identical to parent cell.
5. Describe the structure and function of DNA and RNA. Explain how these structures are
involved in gene expression. What are some metaphors for DNA?
● DNA consists of A, G, T, C; RNA of A, G, T, C
● Transcription: DNA synthesizes RNA
● Translation: RNA synthesizes protein
● Production of proteins can have transitory or long-lasting effects on organismal structure
● Metaphors for DNA: blueprint, book, recipe; double helix