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Chapter 2: European Invasion and Conquest
I. Norse Influence=earliest documented contact
A. A.D. 1004, Newfoundland, Leif Eriksson
B. By A.D. 1400, Norse abandoned Greenland
A. 1492, unaware of what he discovered
B. Spanish to Central and South America
C. English and French fishermen in North America
1. 1497-1536, Newfoundland
III. European Colonization
A. Reasons for colonization:
1. Conquer people
2. Loot resources
3. Later to colonize
a. Spanish, 1526, South Carolina
b. English, Eastern North America
1. 1585, Roanoke,
2. 1607, Jamestown
c. Dutch, NY
1. Fur traders
B. Differing Approaches
a. Establish imperial presence
b. Control native populations and economies
c. Convert Indians to Christianity
d. Primary interest=native riches, not land
e. Pacified natives
3. Encomienda feudal system—form of slavery with Indian
4. Repartimiento system—smaller haciendas, still Indian
2. France and Russia
a. Primary interest=fur trading
b. Not interested in land
a. Wanted land
b. Sought to ease English unemployment
c. Place for criminals
d. Trade and taxes
e. Commit genocide to take land
4. Indian Slavery
a. Exported to Spain but high losses
b. Needed labor—Spain turned to Africa
c. English encouraged native warfare in SE to procure slaves
d. All European powers perpetuated slave trade
IV. Governmental Policies
1. Spanish in SE, SW, and W
2. French in Canada, along Mississippi River
3. English on East Coast
B. French/Indian War
1. French wanted to control fur trade; British wanted to control the land.
2. Indians used by both sides
3. British win, 1763
C. Proclamation Line, 1763
1. Boundary limiting European settlement west
2. In response to Pontiac’s Uprising, Ottowa Chief
3. Proclamation Line ignored by settlers
D. US/Indian Policies
1. 1783: Much of modern US came under political power of the newly
created United States
2. “Civilize” vs. eliminate
3. Tribes are sovereign but not foreign
a. Supreme Court, 1832, affirmed sovereignty
b. Dependent nations
V. Brief History
A. 1775, Indian Commissions
B. 1790, US recognized 1763 Proclamation Line
C. Settlers push westward
1. Population pressures
3. Competition among European powers
4. “Civilizing”=moral justification for taking land
D. 1781, Indian Department created within War Department
E. 1824, Indian Department became BIA
1. Independent agency, 1834
2. To Department of Interior, 1849
3. Mission of BIA
a. Originally to maintain good relations
b. Then removal and assimilation
4. Principal federal agency for welfare of Native Americans
5. Four Primary Responsibilities
b. Other governmental services (e.g. law, health)
c. Management of 56.2 million acres held in trust
d. Fostering Indian self-determination
F. Manifest Destiny
1. Acquisition of Territory
a. 1846, Oregon
b. 1848, CA and SW
2. Perceived responsibility to conquer and settle lands
3. 1849, Gold Rush in CA
4. Wagon trails, RR
5. Set up Indian Wars
G. Removal and Reservations
1. After War of 1812 policies change
a. 1830, Indian Removal Act
b. Cherokee Trail of Tears
c. Oklahoma as Indian Territory (Choctaw for red man)
1. Rejected as Indian state, 1904
2. Admitted as state, 1907
d. 1865, put Indians on reservations to protect them
2. Military Solution
a. 1867, “Peace Policy”
1. Wm. T. Sherman, Gen. Of Army, 1869
b. 1871, no more treaties
1. By 1870s shift from segregation to assimilation into mainstream society
2. Dawes Act, 1887
a. Individual land ownership
b. Less land needed, much land loss
c. Citizenship if accepted
3. Boarding schools, 1877-1960s
a. Removed from homes
b. Trained as domestics and laborers
I. Indian New Deal–John Collier, IRA, 1934
1. Ended allotment
2. Unsold land returned to tribes
3. Improved education
4. Organized tribal governments
J. Indian Claims Commission, 1946
K. WWII, participation and move to cities
L. 1950s, Termination
M. Indian Civil Rights Act, 1968
N. 1970, BIA from management to service
O. 1975, Indian Self-Determination Act—new legal rights
P. 1993, American Indian Religious Freedom Act
Q. 1994 and today, government-to-government relationship
VI. Canadian Indian Policies
A. 570 native groups called “First Nations”
B. Reserves held in trust by Canadian government
C. Slavery outlawed, 1834 (Indians=primary slaves)
D. Canada becomes independent (dominion)
1. Office of Indian Affairs within Dept. of Interior
2. Now Ministry of Indian and Northern Affairs
3. Status Indians=formally recognized treaty rights
4. Non-Status Indians
5. Métis=European fur traders and Indian (mainly Cree) wives
6. Eleven major treaties from 1871-1921
7. 1888, similar to Dawes Act
E. Indian Act, 1876
1. No religious rights=symbol of mistreatment
2. Repealed, 1969
F. Citizens, 1951
G. Move to terminate fought successfully
H. Couldn’t vote nationally until 1960
I. Comprehensive Land Claim Settlements
1. Nunavat=new province in NW Territory governed by Eskimos
J. Native populations in Canada today
1. a. 1,173,000 indigenous peoples in Canada
2. 615 bands representing approx. 50 nations
VII. Northern Mexico and Indian Policy
A. 20% Indios
B. 1821, Mexico independent of Spain, continued repartimiento
C. 1850s, reform laws forbade communal property, abolished Indian status
D. Yaqui resistance, many fled to AZ
E. 1910, Mexican Revolution
2. Preserve heritage
F. Troubled Areas
1. Zapotecs in Oaxaca, 1980s
2. Maya in Chiapas, 1990s
VIII. Native Policies in Greenland
A. First Norse colony in AD 982; abandoned by 1400.
1. Co-existence with indigenous Inuit peoples
2. Circumstances surrounding abandonment uncertain
B. Greenland considered a colony by joint Norse-Danish kingdom
1. Abandonment discovered in 18th c.; colony replaced
C. 1814: Norway and Denmark separate; Denmark assumes control of Greenland colony
1. Primarily a trade station having little impact on indigenous Inuit peoples
D. 1953: Greenland becomes a country within Denmark
1. Colonial rule technically ends, but Inuit populations remain economically and
politically dependent on Denmark
a. Inuit have a growing role in own parliament
IX. Cultural and Biological Impacts of European Intrusion
A. Population loss
1. Up to 95%
4. Murder and warfare
B. Loss of culture and traditional knowledge
C. Loss of Land
D. Health Problems, alcoholism most serious
X. SIDELIGHT: European Diseases in the New World
A. Transmitted to NW, not vice versa, generally
1. NE Asian population segregated from African evolution
2. Immunity evolved for Old World over millions of years
3. New World relatively free of contagious, infectious diseases
4. Contagious, infectious diseases developed since agriculture/cities
5. Role of animal domestication—diseases jump from animals to humans
6. Old World trading network helped immunity
B. Disease=complex reactions and symptoms by host reacting to invasion
1. Contagious disease=small parasites, e.g. virus, bacteria by air or direct
2. Infectious disease=larger parasites, e.g. worms
C. European diseases dominate North America
D. African diseases dominate South America
X. Fur Trade
A. Major economic endeavor by all European powers
B. Impact on Native people
1. Competition with other tribes
2. Changes in political structures to suit Europeans
3. Economy from subsistence to trapping
4. Dependency on trade, trade items
5. New emphasis on territorial defense
6. Larger groups settle near trading posts
a. Violence increased
b. Domestic violence
d. Health problems, e.g. refined sugar
e. Soaring death rates
7. Loss of tradition
8. “Scorched stream” policy killed off all animals in an area to prevent
XI. SIDELIGHT: Spanish Mission System
A. Conversion important
B. Four major centers—1-3 all reduccion=removed to mission
1. CA—Baja and Alta missions
4. N. Mexico=most extensive system
C. Missions like “concentration camps”—enslaved labor
D. Impact on Indians
1. Loss of culture—“Cultural Genocide”
2. Increased deaths from overwork, disease, unable to reproduce
E. Presidios=military garrisons
F. Indians forced into Spanish culture
1. New religion
2. New food, clothing, trades
3. New language
4. Economies changed
7. Revolts occurred
XII. SIDELIGHT: Native Tobacco, Then and Now
A. Indigenous to New World
B. Used in North America primarily for ceremonies, sometimes recreational
C. Sometimes cultivated
D. Europeans originally considered tobacco a medicine
E. Less harsh species imported from Caribbean by John Rolfe, Jamestown
F. Largest grower and consumer today is China
B. Sample Exam Questions, Chapter 2
1. The first Europeans to make the earliest documented contact with the New World were __________.
a. Columbus and crew in 1492
b. Vikings in AD 500
c. Portuguese in 1400
d. Norse, around AD 1000
2. Europeans traveled to the New World in order to __________.
a. learn from Indians
b. conquer people and loot resources
c. primarily to convert natives to Christianity
d. all of the above
3. Spain’s approach to the New World included __________.
a. converting Indians
b. establishing an imperial presence
c. taking rich resources
d. all of the above
4. The encomienda system was __________.
a. fair to Indians
b. form of Indian feudalism
c. based on communes
d. not used often
5. The repartimiento system __________.
a. was a way to Christianize Indians
b. gave land back to Indians
c. replaced the enconmienda system
d. helped Europeans obtain furs from Indians
6. The Dutch, the French, and the Russians were primarily interested in __________.
a. the fur trade
b. converting Indians to Christianity
c. gaining land to farm
d. building settlements
7. The English came to the New World primarily__________.
a. to gain land
b. to ease unemployment in Great Britain
c. to get rid of criminals
d. none of the above
e. all of the above
8. As General of the Army in 1869, General William T. Sherman __________.
a. Formed peaceful agreements with Indians
b. Was fired for sympathizing too much with Natives’ causes
c. Campaigned to exterminate Indians in the West
d. Campaigned to send Indian children to boarding schools
9. The French/Indian War, which ended in 1763, __________.
a. ignored the British
b. was won by the British
c. ended with settlers respecting terms of the treaty
d. was a dispute over Central America
10. The Proclamation Line of 1763 __________.
a. Prevented Indians from voting
b. Returned misappropriated land to Indians
c. Limited European expansion Westward
d. Marked the boundary between Protestant and Catholic missionaries to the Indians
11. In the 1830s the Supreme Court ruled that __________.
a. Indian tribes were really like foreign countries
b. Indian tribes must become civilized
c. Eastern tribes should be moved west
d. Indian tribes were sovereign, dependent nations
12. The Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) __________.
a. began in the Department of the Interior in 1849
b. began in the War Department
c. began to put Indians on reservations
d. was never an official government agency
13. Primary responsibilities of the Bureau of Indian Affairs include __________.
a. education and health services
b. changing Indian treaties
c. management of Indian trust lands
d. a and c
e. all of the above
14. The non-Indian belief in Manifest Destiny led to __________.
a. better relations with Plains tribes
b. more wars with Indians
c. a negative attitude toward acquiring new territory
d. more interest in Indian cultures and beliefs
15. After the War of 1812, __________.
a. Americans wanted peace with Indians.
b. Americans encouraged statehood for Indian territories
c. Americans chose to remove Indians to reservations
d. Indians asked to end treaty-making
16. In the 1870s American Indian policy __________.
a. shifted from segregation to assimilation
b. extended treaty-making into the 1890s
c. allowed Indian children to remain on reservations to maintain their culture
d. added land to most Indian reservations
17. The Indian New Deal or Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 __________.
a. continued allotment because it successfully changed Indians to farmers
b. returned unsold land to tribes
c. ended allotment
d. a and b
e. b and c
18. In Canada __________.
a. Indian reserves are owned outright by Indians
b. all Indians are recognized federally
c. Indians were given full rights as citizens by their treaties
d. Nunavat is a new province governed by Eskimos
19. In Mexico __________.
a. the repartimiento system was stopped when Mexico became independent
b. reform laws in the 1850s recognized Indian rights and communal property
c. the 1910 Revolution tried to destroy Indian cultures
d. the Yaqui, Maya, and Zapotecs have rebelled against the government
20. European intrusion in the New World led to Indian __________.
a. population decimation and loss of cultures
b. loss of land
c. health problems
d. b and c
e. all of the above
21. European diseases __________.
a. spread from South America to North America
b. were transmitted through agriculture and animal domestication
c. had little impact on the New World
d. moved more easily from north to south
22. Large groups of Indians who settled near trading posts found
their lives impacted by __________.
a. better health benefits
b. increased domestic violence
c. longer life expectancy
d. pressure from the trader to produce more crafts
24. Ways the Spanish mission system impacted Indians include __________.
a. cooperative farming for trade with the missions
b. preservation of Indian cultures
c. removal from their homes for slave labor
d. better health and longer life expectancy
25. Native Americans used tobacco __________.
a. primarily for ceremonies
b. mainly for recreation
c. because European settlers gave it to them
d. but they never cultivated the plant
1 Norseman Leif Eriksson landed in Newfoundland around A.D.
1000, the first documented European contact with the New World
2. The Spanish concentrated on North America, while the French and English colonized Central
and South America
3. Europeans first came to the New World because they wanted the resources.
4. Spain pacified the natives by warfare, disease, and feudal work systems.
5. France and Russia primarily wanted to take land in the New World for colonization
6. The English came to the New World because they wanted to settle the land.
7. None of the European powers encouraged the slave trade.
8. The English encouraged native warfare in order to procure slaves
9. Indians were used by both sides in the French/Indian War
10. The Proclamation Line of 1763 was ignored by American settlers.
11. In 1832 the U.S. Supreme Court denied Indian sovereignty
12. The Indian Department, created within the War Department in 1781, became the Bureau of
Indian Affairs in 1824
13. The original mission of the Bureau of Indian Affairs was to maintain good relations with
14. Fostering Indian self-determination is one of the primary responsibilities of the Bureau of
15. For Americans Manifest Destiny meant being more respectful of Indian land rights.
16. The 1830 Indian Removal Act resulted in recognition of Indian rights and sovereignty
17. The Peace Policy of 1867 treated Indians with compassion and fairness
18. The Dawes Act of 1887 encouraged individual land ownership.
19. The Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 ended allotment and reorganized tribal governments.
20. The current basis of federal government and Indian relations is complete assimilation
21. Three categories of Native Americans in Canada are Status, Non-Status, and Metis.
22. In Mexico, only about 5% of the population is considered Indian (indios)
23. European diseases devastated American Indians because the New World was relatively
free of contagious, infectious diseases
24. The fur trade was never important to Europeans or to Indians
25. The Spanish missions and presidios forced American Indians to change religion, language,
SHORT ESSAYS, Chapter 2:
1. Briefly compare the different approaches of Spain, France, Russia, and England in
the New World.
France—fur trade emphasized, not land or colonizing, treated Indians well.
Russia—fur trade mainly, abused
natives. England—wanted land to
settle, abused Indians.
Spain—looted resources, abused natives, later convert and civilize
2. What was the mission of the Bureau of Indian Affairs? What are its responsibilities?
Original mission to maintain good relations with Indians, then became removal and
assimilation. Responsibilities include education, other governmental services such as law and
health, management of trust lands, and fostering Indian self-determination.
3. Who promoted the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 and what did it do?
Promoted by John Collier, part of Pres. Roosevelt’s New Deal ended allotment, returned unsold
land to tribes, improved education, and organized tribal governments.
4. Compare Canadian Indian policies to those of the U.S. Consider land ownership,
religious and civil rights.
Lands held in trust is the same. No religious rights until 1969 in Canada, no voting rights
there until 1960. U.S. 1993 American Indian Religious Freedom Act. U.S. 1975, SelfDetermination Act. Both U.S. and Canadian Indians fought termination.
5. Discuss the major culture and biological impacts of Europeans on American Indians.
Population loss—up to 95%, diseases, malnutrition, war, loss of culture and traditional
knowledge, loss of land, health decimated, e.g. alcoholism.
6. How did Native Americans use tobacco? What did Europeans do with tobacco? Who grows
and consumes the most tobacco today?
For ceremonies, sometimes recreational. Europeans considered it a medicine and harsh, so
developed a new species. China grow and consumes the most today.