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FOLK AND POPULAR CULTURE
1. The hippies of the 1960s formed a distinct segment of American society that set itself
up in opposition to what they perceived as the problems of the dominant culture.
Hippies can be said to have composed a distinctive
d. nonmaterial culture.
2. Tattoos, or “ink,” are very popular today. Some people end up living the “ink
lifestyle,” getting large portions of their limbs or bodies tattooed, spending time with
other tattooed people, and attending ink conventions. We might classify the people
who take part in the ink lifestyle as a(n)
d. local consumption culture.
3. Which of the following would NOT be considered a subculture?
d. bikers (those who ride motorcycles)
MANY CULTURES: MATERIAL, NONMATERIAL, FOLK, AND POPULAR
4. All the objects made and used by members of a group collectively form its
a. nonmaterial culture.
*b. material culture.
d. amenity culture.
5. Which of the following is NOT an element of material culture?
6. The wide range of beliefs, values, myths, and symbolic meanings of a culture form its
*a. nonmaterial culture.
b. material culture.
d. amenity culture.
7. Which of the following are examples of nonmaterial culture?
a. house types
b. eating utensils
* d. Web sites
8. Which of the following is NOT an element of nonmaterial culture?
9. The term used to describe a rural people living in an old-fashioned way is
10. Which of the following is NOT true of folk cultures?
*a. They value independence and personal initiative.
b. They are primarily rural.
c. They form a cohesive unit.
d. They share an ethnicity and customs.
11. Which of the following is NOT true of folk cultures?
a. Most goods are handmade.
*b. Most of the people live in cities.
c. Order is maintained through religious or familial sanctions.
d. Social classes tend to be weakly developed.
12. The Amish religious concept of demut means
13. The Amish are a religious denomination derived from the ____________ faith.
14. The term “folk culture” was coined by
*a. Eugene Wilhelm.
b. Yi-Fu Tuan.
c. Terry Jordan.
d. Denis Cosgrove.
15. Which of the following is NOT true of popular culture?
a. It tends to be based in cities.
*b. It focuses on community over the individual.
c. Its material culture tends to be mass-produced.
d. Its family structure tends to be weaker than family structure in folk cultures.
16. In popular culture, authority tends to be
17. All of the following have been responsible for the spread of popular culture, and the
consequent retreat of folk life, EXCEPT
a. the mass media.
*b. religious fundamentalism.
18. Folk culture is a term most likely to be associated with
a. highly industrialized.
*b. rural dwellers.
19. A folk culture is NOT likely to be
b. homogeneous in custom.
c. steeped in tradition.
* d. progressive regarding political issues.
20. Which of the following does NOT apply as much as the others to folk cultures?
c. subsistence economy
21. A good contemporary example of folk culture in the United States is that of the
22. Popular culture is characterized by all of the following EXCEPT
a. mass production.
b. money economy.
c. considerable leisure time.
*d. strong family control.
23. Which of the following is NOT a characteristic strongly associated with popular
a. pronounced division of labor
*b. religious power structures
c. highly individualistic
d. rapid change
24. Which is NOT an attribute of popular culture?
*a. decreased leisure time
b. heightened mobility
c. greater affluence
d. weakened attachment to family and place
25. Folk geography can be defined as the study of folklife’s
a. origin and distribution.
b. spatial patterns and economy.
*c. spatial patterns and ecology.
d. thematic patterns and folklore.
26. Popular culture diffuses ______ from region to region and changes more ______
than folk culture.
27. All of the following tend to be characteristics of folk culture EXCEPT
a. rural location.
b. strong family structure.
c. handmade goods and material culture items.
*d. dominance of mass media.
28. Which of the following is NOT considered part of nonmaterial culture?
*d. sacred buildings
29. In the strictest sense, popular culture generally refers to a form of culture that is
_______________ by a population, while mass culture refers to a form of culture that is
_______________ through mass media, art, and other forms of communication.
a. purchased; created
b. denied; embraced
*c. consumed; produced and distributed
d. given physical form; given nonmaterial form
30. The type of culture that is produced, distributed, and marketed through the media,
art, and other forms of communication is
a. popular culture.
b. folk culture.
*c. mass culture.
d. societal culture.
31. Which two U.S. states do NOT host any folk survival regions? (Hint: See Figure 2.1.)
a. Texas and New Mexico
b. Utah and Nevada
c. New Hampshire and Vermont
*d. Wisconsin and Minnesota
32. Within the United States and Canada, many folk cultures remain extant.
33. The mass media play a large role in shaping folk culture.
34. In popular culture people tend to have more relationships, but fewer close personal
relationships, than in folk culture.
35. Folk cultures typically have subsistence economies.
36. Folk cultures no longer exist in the United States and Canada.
37. Among the Amish, surviving folk culture is maintained primarily through rejection of
what the Amish people perceive to be inappropriate innovations.
38. Popular culture relationships are numerous and largely impersonal.
39. Material elements of culture are visible.
40. With popularization, family structures and interpersonal relationships are
41. Popular culture exists where secular institutions are in control.
42. The majority of “developed” countries now belong to popular culture rather than
43. An essential difference between folk culture and popular culture is the speed at
which diffusion occurs.
44. Popular culture is synonymous with mass culture.
45. Mass culture refers to the consumption of culture, while popular culture refers to
the production, distribution, and marketing of culture.
46. Popular culture relationships are numerous and largely impersonal in comparison to
relationships in folk culture.
47. In many cases, folk cultures can be thought of as subcultures in relation to a
dominant popular culture.
FOLK AND POPULAR CULTURE REGIONS
Material Folk Culture Regions
48. Scraped-earth graveyards are found mostly in _______________ regions.
c. Native American
49. You are walking in rural America and decide to visit a roadside cemetery. Many of
the headstones are inscribed with “winged death’s heads.” You must be in this folk
c. Upland South
d. African American
50. Which of the following is NOT reflective of folk landscapes?
a. Swiss-German barn in Pennsylvania
b. scraped-earth cemetery in Mississippi
*c. McDonald’s in North Dakota
d. beef wheels in Montana
51. Which is a characteristic of the Quebec French folk region?
a. dogtrot houses
b. scraped-earth graveyards
c. hay derricks
*d. grist windmills
52. Which is a characteristic of the Mormon folk region?
a. dogtrot houses
b. scraped-earth graveyards
*c. hay derricks
d. grist windmills
53. Which of the following is NOT frequently found in African-American folk regions?
b. head kerchiefs
*c. grist windmills
d. scraped-earth graveyards
Folk Food Regions
54. Which folk food region serves monkey and caiman?
a. the Caribbean
*b. the Amazonian region
56. Which country’s cuisine is distinguished by cuzcuz?
56. Which region’s foodways emphasize rice-bean dishes and rum drinks?
*a. the Caribbean
b. the Amazonian region
Is Popular Culture Placeless?
57. Which term refers to the generic quality of popular culture, which makes one place
seem very much like another?
a. cultural disappearance
c. spatiality deformation
d. cultural adhesion
58. The presence of ________________________ in a downtown area may contribute
to a sense of placelessness.
*a. Wendy’s and McDonald’s
b. a local hardware store
c. public parks
59. The term placelessness was coined by
a. Denis Cosgrove.
b. Michael Weiss.
*c. Edward Relph.
d. Eugene Wilhelm.
60. Edward Relph’s term placelessness refers to
*a. a standardization of landscape.
b. the merging of suburban and urban landscapes.
c. unpopulated regions.
d. the fragmentation of lifestyle regions.
61. Michael Weiss has argued that Americans can be classified according to their
a. tastes in fashion.
b. career choices.
*c. zip code.
62. According to Michael Weiss, “Old Yankee Rowers” share all of the following
a. a high school education.
b. enjoyment of hockey and bowling.
c. they are three times more likely than the average American to live in a rowhouse or
*d. support for the local college/university’s crew team.
63. “Gray Power” and “Norma Rae-Ville” are examples of what Michael Weiss calls
a. placeless landscapes.
b. ZIP code regions.
*c. lifestyle clusters.
d. age cohorts.
64. Which of the following is NOT a U.S. subculture identified by Michael Weiss?
*a. Conspicuous Consumers
b. Gray Power
c. Old Yankee Rowers
d. Norma Raevillers
65. Most members of the “Gray Power” subculture belong to which class?
*b. upper middle
66. According to Michael Weiss, which type of neighborhood is most likely to be found
in New Jersey, New York, and Connecticut?
a. Gray Power
*b. Old Yankee Row
c. Norma Raeville
67. According to Edward Relph, placelessness results from the pervasive influence of
68. The “geography of nowhere” is related to placelessness.
69. Placelessness is more important than regionalism in describing popular culture
Popular Food and Drink
70. In what part of the United States are grits, barbecued beef, and fried chicken most
a. New England
*b. the South
c. the Midwest
d. the Great Lakes region
71. The beverage most associated with the U.S. South is
*b. whiskey made from corn.
d. soda pop.
72. Which of the following place-consumption associations is NOT correct?
a. Alabama and fried chicken
b. Massachusetts and pizza
c. Tennessee and whiskey
*d. Utah and beer
73. Within the United States, fast-food consumption is highest in
*a. the Southwest and West.
b. the Midwest.
c. New England.
d. the Great Lakes region.
74. In the United States, pizza parlors are more common in the North than in the South.
75. Within the United States, barbecued pork is more popular in the South than in the
76. In general, a particular food brand has a consistent meaning for people across the
77. The unofficial capital of country music within the United States is
Vernacular Culture Regions
78. In which U.S. state is the Acadia vernacular culture region found? (Hint: See Figure
c. New York
79. According to Zelinsky, which state would NOT be considered part of “The West” as a
vernacular culture region in the United States?
c . Montana
80. In terms of vernacular culture regions, which two U.S. states are clearly a part of the
Midwest? (Hint: See Figure 2.14.)
a. Texas and Colorado
b. Indiana and Ohio
c. Arkansas and Oklahoma
*d. Nebraska and Kansas
81. Regardless of size or origin, vernacular regions have what type of character?
82. Which of the following is NOT true of vernacular culture regions?
*a. They have strongly defined borders.
b. They are a product of the spatial perception of the people at large.
c. They vary greatly in size.
d. They often overlap one another.
83. What did Zelinsky use to draw the boundaries of U.S. vernacular culture regions?
a. interviews with people at shopping malls
b. town names
*c. business names
d. histories of Native American tribes in the region
84. According to Zelinsky, no regional affiliation is perceived in
*a. New York.
85. In which U.S. state is the Acadia vernacular culture region found? (Hint: See Figure
c. New York
86. A vernacular culture region is often perpetuated by the mass media, such as
television and radio.
FOLK AND POPULAR CULTURE DIFFUSION
87. Diffusion operates more rapidly within a folk setting than within a popularculture