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Chapter 2 – Human Origins: 7 Million to 1.9 Million Years Ago
In this revision of the Test Bank, all of the questions have been updated to reflect changes in
People of the Earth, 14e. There is also a new system for identifying the difficulty of the
questions. In this revision, the questions are now tagged according to four levels of learning that
help organize the text. Think of these four levels as moving from lower-level to higher-level
cognitive reasoning. The four levels are:
REMEMBER: a question involving recall of key terms or factual material
UNDERSTAND: a question testing comprehension of more complex ideas
APPLY: a question applying anthropological knowledge to some new situation
ANALYZE: a question requiring identifying elements of an argument and their interrelationship
The 27 questions in this chapter’s Test Bank are divided into two types of questions. Multiplechoice questions span a broad range of skills (more than half are “Remember” questions and the
remainder are divided among higher levels). Essay questions are the most demanding because
they include all four levels of cognitive reasoning.
Multiple Choice Questions
1. __________ was the first to question the nature of the relationship between humans and their
relatives, the chimpanzees and gorillas.
A. Stephen Jay Gould
B. Louis Leakey
C. Charles Darwin
D. Thomas Huxley
REMEMBER Answer: D (pg 25)
2. __________ are periods during the Pleistocene where the climate was as warm or warmer than
that of today.
A. Heat waves
D. Global Warmings
REMEMBER Answer: B (pg 25)
3. Fluctuations in the earth’s climate during the Pleistocene are thought to be due to __________.
A. astronomical changes
B. methane gases
D. volcanic eruptions
UNDERSTAND Answer: A (pg 26)
4. Which of the following primates are included in the anthropoid suborder?
B. humans, apes, and monkeys
REMEMBER Answer: B (pgs 26-27)
5. Aegyptopithecus dates to the __________ epoch.
REMEMBER Answer: A (pg 27)
6. Proconsul and Kenyapithecus date to the __________ epoch.
REMEMBER Answer: D (pg 28)
7. It has been shown that chimpanzees share __________ percent of their genetic makeup with
REMEMBER Answer: D (pg 30)
8. Adaptive problems faced by early hominids include all of the following EXCEPT
A. competition from predators
B. being large mammals
C. being terrestrial primates
D. living in a savanna environment
UNDERSTAND Answer: A (pg 32)
9. The hominid found dating between 6 and 7 mya with a mix of ape-like and human-like
characteristics is __________.
A. Sahelanthropus tchadensis (Toumaï)
B. Australopithecus afarensis (Lucy)
C. Ardipithecus ramidus
D. Australopithecus anamensis
REMEMBER Answer: A (pgs 34-35)
10. The important fossil nicknamed Lucy is a(n) __________ dating to 3.18 mya.
A. Australopithecus anamensis
B. Homo erectus
C. Australopithecus afarensis
D. Homo habilis
REMEMBER Answer: C (pg 37)
11. At the site of __________ in northern Tanzania, there is evidence of bipedalism preserved in
volcanic ash dating to 3.75 – 3.9 mya.
B. Koto Toro
REMEMBER Answer: C (pg 38)
12. Around 3 million years ago, the Australopithecus line split into two distinct lineages. The
__________ australopithecines had small, delicate features and were found only in South Africa.
UNDERSTAND Answer: B (pg 38)
13. Around 3 million years ago, the Australopithecus line split into two distinct lineages. The
__________ australopithecines were found in both East and South Africa and had a heavy build
with specialized teeth.
UNDERSTAND Answer: C (pg 38)
14. The find associated with bones displaying cut marks suggests meat eating by the __________
may have occurred earlier than previously thought.
A. Sahelanthropus tchadensis
B. Australopithecus afarensis
C. Homo erectus
D. Australopithecus garhi
REMEMBER Answer: D (pg 39)
15. The first member of the Homo lineage was __________.
A. Homo erectus
B. Homo sapiens
C. Homo neanderthalensis
D. Homo habilis
REMEMBER Answer: D (pg 40)
16. Which of the following is an explanation for concentrations of bones and stone tools dating to
the time of Homo habilis?
A. central places where hominids would return to eat, sleep, make tools, and socialize
B. formation of elaborate hunting parties
C. all of the bones are found in animal dens or caves
D. reduction in brain size leading to less social intelligence
REMEMBER Answer: A (pg 50)
17. The stone tool industry associated with early Homo is __________.
C. Upper Paleolithic
REMEMBER Answer: D (pgs 52-53)
18. According to __________, the flakes were more important in Oldowan technology than the
REMEMBER Answer: B (pgs 52-53)
19. By examining living primates, Robin Dunbar was able to determine that __________ was
related to brain size.
A. group size
C. tool use
D. degree of sexual dimorphism
REMEMBER Answer: A (pg 56)
20. Most archaeological evidence for Homo habilis indicates they lived near __________.
A. permanent water sources
C. ice sheets
D. rain forests
REMEMBER Answer: A (pg 56)
21. Advantages of large group size in Homo habilis include __________.
A. protection against carnivores and the ability to cover a larger area in searching for food
B. the ability to provide physical defense against carnivores while searching for food
C. more individuals to babysit while females hunted
D. better protection by some group members sitting watch in trees
UNDERSTAND Answer: A (pg 56)
22. In the 1960s, the Gardeners taught a chimpanzee named __________ how to communicate
via American Sign Language (ASL).
C. Nim Chimpski
REMEMBER Answer: B (pg 56)
23. One way to determine the position of the larynx in fossils is by the __________.
A. length of the neck
B. size of the hyoid bone
C. shape of the base of the skull
D. shape of the lower jaw
REMEMBER Answer: C (pg 57)
24. Due to a longer period of brain growth, infant dependency of Homo habilis would have been
__________ that of chimpanzees.
A. the same as
B. greater than
C. shorter than
D. less than
UNDERSTAND Answer: B (pg 58)
25. Discuss the skeletal and archaeological lines of evidence that suggest that Australopithecus
afarensis (Lucy) was bipedal. APPLY (pg 37)
26. List the four criteria used to assign a fossil into the genus Homo. Are any of these criteria
controversial? Why? ANALYZE (pgs 40-42)
27. Discuss the differences in tool use between chimpanzees and Homo habilis. APPLY (pg 52)