ABOUT THIS INSTRUCTOR’S MANUAL AND TEST BANK
This instructor’s manual and test bank provides suggested learning activities and test questions for Chapters 1 through 13 of the textbook.
- Learning Activities
The suggested learning activities feature short-term group projects or hands-on activities to reinforce major concepts and issues from each chapter.
- Test Bank
The test bank includes multiple-choice and essay questions for each chapter. The multiple-choice items have been developed to assess both basic and higher level learning. The essay questions are integrated and process-oriented.
Directions for the Test Bank Items
Although students are likely to be familiar with both multiple-choice and essay exam formats, it is still a good idea to provide clear instructions for how to respond to your questions. Here are examples of directions for exams that contain a mix of multiple-choice and essay questions:
For hand-scored exams:
Directions. Read each question and all alternatives carefully. For multiple-choice questions, circle the letter that corresponds to the one best answer. For essay questions, use the space provided and the backs of pages to write your response. Make sure you understand each question before you attempt to answer it. If you have questions about the items on the exam, ask for clarification. If you want to explain your thinking about any item on the exam, you may write a note to me on the exam.
For machine-scored exams:
Directions. Read each question and all alternatives carefully. For multiple-choice questions, blacken the circle that corresponds to the one best answer. For essay questions, use the sheet(s) of paper attached to your answer sheet to write your responses. Make sure you understand each question before you attempt to answer it. If you have questions about the items on the exam, ask for clarification. If you want to explain your thinking about any item on the exam, you may write a note to me on the exam.
In addition to receiving these directions, students should be informed of point values for all items. This information is particularly important for essay questions, as it allows students to make strategic decisions about how to spend the available time.
Guidelines for Scoring Tests
An answer key, which includes model responses for the essay questions, is provided after each chapter’s test bank items. Scoring of multiple-choice items is fairly straightforward. You may want to keep a running tally of the specific incorrect answers chosen by your students as you score their exams. This simple method of item analysis will allow you to make informed decisions about the fairness of any particular item for the group being tested. It may also offer insights for future instruction or item revisions. If you allow students to defend their multiple-choice answers, you will need to make some judgments about whether a student understands the concept being tested in spite of choosing an incorrect response.
Scoring responses to the essay questions will be more subjective and time consuming. Model answers are provided to assist you in scoring essay responses in a consistent and reliable manner. However, these criteria may need to be revised or expanded to match what was actually presented, emphasized, or discussed in your classes.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Chapter 1 The Nature and Tools of Research………………………………………………….. 5
Chapter 2 The Problem: The Heart of the Research Process……………………………. 10
Chapter 3 Review of the Related Literature…………………………………………………… 15
Chapter 4 Planning Your Research Project ……………………………………………………. 22
Chapter 5 Writing the Research Proposal ……………………………………………………… 28
Chapter 6 Descriptive Research…………………………………………………………………… 32
Chapter 7 Experimental, Quasi-Experimental, and Ex Post Facto Designs……….. 38
Chapter 8 Analyzing Quantitative Data ……………………………………………………….. 44
Chapter 9 Qualitative Research Methods………………………………………………………. 50
Chapter 10 Historical Research……………………………………………………………………… 55
Chapter 11 Analyzing Qualitative Data………………………………………………………….. 59
Chapter 12 Mixed-Methods Designs………………………………………………………………. 62
Chapter 13 Planning and Preparing a Final Research Report…………………………….. 66
Answer Key……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 71
The Nature and Tools of Research
The purpose of this chapter is to get students to think critically about what constitutes research. To further familiarize students with the research literature, try this exercise. It will help them understand what research is and the many forms it may take.
Ask students to bring copies of one or two research articles they’ve read recently to class. This will create a pool of articles to work with. Chances are the pool will include review articles, meta-analyses, theoretical pieces, and empirical studies employing both quantitative and qualitative methodologies. To the extent that the class includes students from a variety of fields, the pool will represent these diverse fields. If there are certain types of articles that you particularly want included in the sample pool, or that you anticipate will be missing from the pool, you may want to provide these.
Place students into groups of about five. Make these groups diverse by field to the extent possible. Without providing any opening discussion about the nature of research, ask students to look through their group’s collection of articles and determine how they are similar to each other and how they differ. After groups have explored the articles and attempted to classify them on various criteria, conduct a discussion of the content of Chapter 1. Returning to the pool of sample articles, assist students in identifying what types of articles are in the sample pool and which of the articles are true research as described in Chapter 1.
I suggest collecting the articles from class members at the end of the activity to keep on hand for use throughout the course. I make additional suggestions for their use in conjunction with subsequent chapters.
The Nature and Tools of Research
- To be considered true research, a project must:
- gather together a body of existing information and communicate it in a clear and concise way.
- uncover obscure or esoteric information and bring it to the consideration of the broader research community.
- gather and interpret information in a systematic fashion so as to increase understanding of some phenomenon.
- produce definitive conclusions regarding the subject of study.
- Which of the following examples illustrates research as it is described in your textbook?
- Sally is writing a paper about the effects of the Harry Potter books on the reading habits of fourth graders in the United States and United Kingdom. She goes to a research library to find information to include in her paper.
- Ian wants to know why the population of songbirds has declined in recent years in the Sutton Wilderness Area. He carefully collects soil and water samples, systematically surveys the entire area for predators, and then sits down to make sense of his findings.
- Leonard is starting a woodworking business and is not sure how to calculate the cost of his labor so he can be both profitable and fair to the customers. He asks several established business owners how they calculate labor changes.
- Bill is doing a report on the sonnets of Shakespeare. He carefully reads a number of sonnets and then carefully reads scholarly reviews of those same sonnets written by various Shakespeare scholars. He synthesizes all of this information in his report.
- Research is considered cyclical because:
- the researcher articulates the goals of the project and then collects data to solve a particular problem.
- questions lead to data collection which leads to interpretations and then to new problems.
- it has a number of steps that should be followed in order.
- it is based on solving problems and subproblems in a systematic, unbiased way.
- Cameron is conducting a study that addresses the differences in achievement scores between schools that use block scheduling and schools that use a traditional scheduling format. He has accessed average achievement scores for 1200 schools and now is comparing the two groups. In which research step is Cameron engaged?
- Recognize and identify a problem
- Interpret the meaning of the data
- Analyze the collected data
- Develop a specific plan to address the problem
- Which of the following is most likely a statement made by a qualitative researcher?
- I would like to interview a few of the participants to understand their training.
- I would like to give participants a test to determine their skill level.
- I would like to use teacher ratings to see if the program worked.
- I would like to control which students get the training so we can compare groups of children that did and did not get training.
- Which of the following is most likely a statement made by a quantitative researcher?
- Let’s follow the groups for the course of the project and take notes about their social interactions and dialogues.
- Let’s conduct some focus groups with college students about the types of cooperative learning they have encountered in their schooling.
- Let’s compare unit test scores of those who were placed in cooperative groups and those who were not.
- Let’s enroll in a course that uses cooperative groups and observe the nature of the instruction from a student perspective.
- The philosophical assumption that objective scientific research can uncover true cause-and-effect relationships in the world is known as:
- Qualitative researchers most commonly (but not exclusively) align with which of the following philosophical approaches to research?
- A specific mechanism or strategy the researcher uses to collect, manipulate, or interpret data is known as a:
- research tool.
- research method.
- statistical test.
- Research methodology refers to:
- the general approach the researcher takes to conducting a research project.
- a specific device the researcher uses to collect data.
- the specific theoretical basis of the research project.
- the statistical tests to be employed in a research project.
- The primary purpose of inferential statistics is to:
- organize and summarize the data.
- turn qualitative data into meaningful numbers that can be interpreted.
- measure social and psychological phenomena in an unbiased way.
- help the researcher draw conclusions from the data.
- Kade has spent the past month carefully observing a group of third graders on the playground during recess, taking note of how the students interact with one another. On the basis of these observations, Kade is drawing conclusions about the interaction styles of boys and girls. This is an example of:
- theory building.
- deductive reasoning.
- inductive reasoning.
- the scientific method.
- Kimberly knows that teenagers often do not make good decisions in areas where they have little knowledge. She also knows that most teens have little knowledge about human sexuality. Therefore, Kimberly believes that teens are likely to make poor decisions about sexual activity. This is an example of:
- inductive reasoning.
- theory building.
- problem solving.
- deductive logic.
- Having completed a series of studies for her dissertation, Marianela sits down to brainstorm about possible explanations for her key findings. She can see a variety of ways in which all data work together, and she prepares to write a final chapter in which she presents those ideas. We would most likely say Marianela is engaged in the process of:
- theory building.
- deductive reasoning.
- The primary reason to seek research articles published in academic journals, rather than those posted by the author on the Internet, is that:
- they have been carefully selected after an extensive review by experts.
- they are more likely to follow the scientific method.
- they tend to focus on the most important topics in the field.
- they are more objective and show fewer pitfalls in human reasoning.
- Describe an example of the word research being used inappropriately. Be clear about how your example deviates from the definition of research offered in the chapter.
- Graduate professors like to insist that the completion of thesis or dissertation research is not merely an “academic exercise” or final hurdle to obtaining the desired degree. Explain at least one personal benefit that the individual derives from completing a high- quality thesis or dissertation. Then explain at least one societal benefit that follows from the individual’s completion of a high-quality thesis or dissertation.
- Do recent technological advances (e.g., the World Wide Web, electronic databases) assure that future research will be of higher quality, or of greater utility, than past research? Support your answer.
WRITING THE RESEARCH PROPOSAL
To help students recognize the elements of a well-written research proposal, there is no substitute for the opportunity to study a variety of samples. This is especially true if the samples include both well-written and poorly written research proposals. Many graduate instructors will have drafts of dissertation and thesis proposals at their disposal, and these may very well reflect a range of quality. These are a good source of examples, but it is important to get permission from the authors of the proposals prior to their use in class. In addition, it is a good idea to use these samples anonymously. This is especially critical if a work is being used as an example of a poorly written proposal or if the author may be known to students in the current class.
If such examples are not available, the collections of theses or dissertations housed at many university libraries can be another good source of examples. Of course, these are completed projects, not proposals. However, a well-written research proposal is very much like a dissertation or thesis report, except that it ends with the proposed data analysis. A little time spent browsing this collection should yield a set of examples that range in methodology, field of study, and quality.
Form small groups of students who are heterogeneous in terms of experience and research interest. Have each small group examine a number of writing samples and rank them according to quality. Ask students to provide a narrative that explains their ranking. If time allows, you may end the activity with whole-group presentations in which students summarize the strengths and weaknesses identified in the writing samples they studied.
WRITING THE RESEARCH PROPOSAL
- According to the textbook, the most effective research proposals:
- are a brief outline of the study you intend to conduct without an excess of detail.
- justify the study to be conducted by explaining how it will contribute to the professional literature.
- are detailed and straightforward explanations of the research problem and methodology.
- include an autobiographical section that explains how the researcher became interested in the research topic.
- A proposal for a quantitative study typically begins with:
- a statement of the problem and its setting.
- a review of the literature on this topic.
- the hypotheses and operational definitions.
- an abstract summarizing the entire study.
- A proposal for a qualitative study typically includes these elements in this order:
- an explanation of how the findings will fit with the larger literature.
- the theoretical framework and underlying assumptions.
- a statement of the purpose of the study and its guiding questions.
- the hypotheses and operational definitions.
- Farhat is interested in the reading practices of Turkish families. He needs to prepare a research proposal for the Ministry of Education to be able to conduct the study. Which of the following is NOT likely part of his shared plan?
- A description of his instrumentation for the study
- A time schedule for how the study will progress
- A discussion of his sampling procedure
- An analysis of data he has already collected
- Sophie is preparing a qualitative research plan for her study that explores the stories of young cancer survivors. Of the following, which is Sophie likely to include in her plan?
- A description of her hypothesis
- A discussion of the representativeness of sample
- A section that demonstrates relevance of the study
- A presentation of her initial findings
- Amida recognizes that there are limitations to her proposed research study that explores students’ opinions about campus mental health resources. As she writes her plan where will she share these limitations?
- The first section where she describes the problem and setting
- The review of related literature
- The section where she discusses treatment of the data
- The summary of her qualifications as a researcher
- In regard to the style you will use for headings and subheadings in the research proposal:
- there are no special formatting requirements unless the document is a thesis or dissertation.
- all disciplines recognize the major formal styles, so it is a matter of personal choice.
- the writer is free to show creativity as long as s/he is consistent throughout the document.
- disciplines often dictate the use of specific formal styles, so you must find out what the expectations are.
- Experienced writers of research proposals typically:
- plan to make revisions to the first draft of the proposal.
- do not need to make revisions to the first draft of the proposal.
- make revisions to the first draft of the proposal only if they are requested by a reviewer.
- may need to edit the first draft of the proposal for typos, but not content.
- When writing the proposal, you should assume that the reader:
- will know which data analytic techniques are appropriate for your study without a detailed explanation.
- is an expert in the area you are addressing and will be familiar with common issues, variables, instruments, etc.
- can discern for him/herself what the importance of the study is.
- knows nothing about the proposed project, so all the details must be thoroughly explained.
- When explaining how the data are to be analyzed and interpreted:
- it is best to provide only a general plan as things will probably change over the course of the study anyway.
- it is best to be as detailed as possible so all contingencies related to analysis and interpretation can be anticipated.
- it is impossible to be highly detailed until one has the actual data in hand.
- an overly specific plan may bias the analyses or interpretation, impairing the validity of the study.
- Three of the following are elements in the proposal revision process. Which one is NOT?
- Reconsider the feasibility of what you are proposing to do.
- Carefully assess the logic and organization of the information in the document.
- Avoid breaks of 24 hours or more as the material will get too “cold” in your mind.
- Seek feedback from knowledgeable others.
- In regard to quantitative research proposals, novice researchers often find it very challenging and tedious to explain in detail how the data will be analyzed and interpreted in their study. Explain why it is essential that the researcher not cut corners in this section of the proposal.