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Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.
1) Which of the following nucleotide sequences accurately reflects the mRNA that would be
produced from the double-stranded DNA shown in Figure 2.1?
2) Based upon a sequence of 15 nucleotides in a strand of DNA, what is the maximum amount of
amino acids produced?
A) 2 B) 7 C) 5 D) 3 E) 50
3) What interaction between complementary bases holds the two strands of a DNA molecule
A) disulfide bridges
B) van der Waals forces
C) covalent bonds
D) ionic bonds
E) hydrogen bonds
4) What interaction between the phosphate and the carbohydrate of a nucleotide holds the
backbone of a DNA strand together?
A) hydrogen bonds
B) ionic bonds
C) van der Waals forces
D) disulfide bridges
E) covalent bonds
5) Which of the following is NOT a monosaccharide? 5) _______
6) What type of molecule is shown in Figure 2.2? 6) _______
B) amino acid
E) fatty acid
7) The presence of ________ chemical groups makes carbohydrates ________. 7) _______
A) hydroxyl : polar
B) carboxyl : polar and acidic
C) amino : acidic
D) hydroxyl : nonpolar
E) amino : polar
8) Which of the following molecules is a disaccharide? 8) _______
A) fructose B) glycogen C) galactose D) lactose E) glucose
9) Which of the following correctly describes glycogen? 9) _______
A) It helps to protect vital organs from damage.
B) It serves as a structural component of human cells.
C) It contains the genetic information found in cells.
D) It is an important storage polysaccharide found in animal tissues.
E) It forms the regulatory molecules known as enzymes.
10) Which of the following is an example of a pentose sugar? 10) ______
11) ________ is a polysaccharide found in animal cells, whereas ________ is a polysaccharide found
in plants that can be degraded by humans.
A) Galactose : starch
B) Galactose : cellulose
C) Glycogen : cellulose
D) Lactose : starch
E) Glycogen : starch
12) Which of the following molecules will dissolve readily in water? 12) ______
E) fatty acid
13) Which of the following statements concerning hydrogen bonds is FALSE? 13) ______
A) They are responsible for many of the unique properties of water.
B) They can form between neighboring molecules.
C) They can occur within a single molecule.
D) They are important forces for tertiary structure of proteins.
E) They are strong attractive forces between hydrogen atoms and negatively charged atoms.
14) ________ are molecules that contain primarily carbons and hydrogens linked together by
nonpolar covalent bonds.
15) ________ are molecules composed of a glycerol and three fatty acids. 15) ______
C) Saturated fatty acids
16) A fatty acid that contains three double bonds in its carbon chain is said to be 16) ______
17) ________ are molecules that form the bilayer of cell membranes and micelles. 17) ______
D) Saturated fatty acids
18) The amphipathic property of phospholipids can be described as a 18) ______
A) nonpolar region facing the outside and a polar region facing the inside of a cell.
B) single nonpolar region that is not miscible in aqueous solution.
C) polar region that dissolves in water and a nonpolar region that repels water.
D) single polar region that is miscible in aqueous solution.
E) nonpolar region that dissolves in water and a polar region that face one another.
19) ________ are modified fatty acids that function in intercellular communication and include
prostaglandins and thromboxanes.
E) Saturated fatty acids
20) ________ act(s) as the precursor to steroid molecules, many of which function as hormones. 20) ______
A) Saturated fatty acids
B) Unsaturated fatty acids
21) Based on Figure 2.3, what type of molecule is this? 21) ______
A) amino acid
B) fatty acid
22) ________ are molecules whose general structure includes a central carbon with a carboxyl group,
an amine group, a hydrogen molecule, and a residual (R) group.
C) Amino acids
23) Alpha-helixes and β-pleated sheets are examples of ________ structures of a protein. 23) ______
24) Formation of peptide bonds occurs by condensation reactions between the ________ group of
one amino acid and the ________ group of another.
A) amino acid : amino acid B) fatty acid : glycerol
C) glucose : glucose D) carboxyl : amino acid amino
25) The most common elements found in biomolecules are carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and 25) ______
26) Each amino acid differs from others only by the 26) ______
A) characteristic of its R group.
B) number of central carbon atoms.
C) number of peptide bonds in the molecule.
D) size of its amino group.
E) number of its carboxyl groups.
27) Hydrogen bonding between the amino hydrogen of one amino acid and the carboxyl oxygen of
another is responsible for which of the following?
A) holding the two strands of DNA together by the law of complementary base pairing
B) twisting the DNA into a helical structure
C) primary protein structure
D) secondary protein structure
E) tertiary protein structure
28) An acid is a molecule that acts as a(n) 28) ______
A) electron donor.
B) proton acceptor.
C) hydroxide donor.
D) proton donor.
E) hydrogen acceptor.
29) Ketoacids (a carboxylic acid group attached to a ketone) are often produced during fasting and
uncontrolled diabetes mellitus. What potential outcome of this would be of greatest concern?
A) weight loss
B) disoriented thinking
C) acetone breath
E) burning ketone bodies
30) The ________ structure of a protein is formed between residual (R) groups of the amino acid
backbone by a number of different chemical interactions, dependent upon the nature of the
residual groups interacting.
31) Which of the following is an example of a fibrous protein? 31) ______
B) Na+/K+ pumps
D) growth hormone
32) ________ are molecules that are composed of one or more phosphate groups, a 5-carbon sugar,
and a nitrogenous base.
C) Amino acids
33) Why are nucleotides (and their polymers) called nucleic acids when they contain nitrogenous
A) Acids always win out over a base.
B) Acids ending in “-ic” are the ionized versions of those molecules ending in “-ate.”
C) There are more acids on the molecule than bases.
D) Nitrogenous base is really a misnomer.
E) Phosphoric acid groups (becoming phosphates) are much stronger than nitrogen acts as a
34) When the body needs to make the eicosanoid thromboxane for wound repair, what component
of the plasma membrane does it use for their synthesis?
A) transmembrane glycoprotein
B) fatty acid from phospholipid
35) Which of the following is/are found in DNA but not RNA? 35) ______
D) both adenine and thymine
E) both thymine and deoxyribose
36) All of the following are basic components of proteins EXCEPT 36) ______
37) Which of the following molecule types is NOT a polymer? 37) ______