Chapter 2

*Frequency Distributions: Tabulating and Displaying Data*

* *

2.1. A major purpose of constructing a frequency distribution with sample data is to:

- Estimate a population parameter
- Test a research hypothesis

*c. Get an organized view of an entire set of scores

- Get experience with statistical software

2.2. In a frequency distribution, the two key informational components are:

*a. Score values (*X*), frequencies (*f*)

- A horizontal (X) axis, a vertical (Y) axis
- Frequencies (
*f*), percentages (%) - Participant ID number (
*id)*, score values (*X)*

2.3. In a frequency distribution, which of the following is true?

- Σ
*N*=*%* - Σ
*N*=*f* - Σ
*f*=*%*

*d. Σ *f* = *N*

2.4. In the equation Σ % = 100.0, the symbol Σ signifies:

- A percentage

*b. The sum of

- A data value
- A frequency

2.5. In a frequency distribution, percentages are sometimes called:

- Proportions
- Relative proportions

*c. Relative frequencies

- Cumulative proportions

2.6. Data for which of the following variables is most likely to be presented in a grouped frequency distribution?

- Nursing specialty area

*b. Daily cholesterol intake

- Number of abortions
- Number of pets owned

2.7. The level of measurement for data appropriately presented in a bar graph is:

- Interval or ratio
- Nominal only
- Interval only

*d. Nominal or ordinal

2.8. In a frequency distribution graph, frequencies are typically presented on the ____ and data values are presented on the ____________. (Fill in the blanks.)

*a. *Y* axis, *X* axis

*X*axis,*Y*axis*f*axis,*N*axis*N*axis,*f*axis

2.9. Which of the following sets of data is *not *unimodal?

*a. 1, 1, 1, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 3, 3, 4, 5, 5, 5, 5, 5, 5, 5, 5

- 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 1, 1, 2, 2, 2, 2, 3, 3, 3, 4, 4, 4, 4
- 0, 0, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 2, 3, 3, 4, 5
- 1, 1, 2, 2, 3, 3, 4, 4, 5, 5, 5, 5, 5, 6, 6, 7, 7, 8, 8, 9, 9

2.10. Which of the following variables is most likely to be negatively skewed in a general population?

- Number of times arrested

*b. Age at retirement

- Number of times married
- Age at birth

2.11. A normal distribution is *not:*

- Skewed
- Leptokurtic
- Platykurtic

*d. All of the above

2.12. A wild code is*:*

*a. A value that is impossible given the coding scheme

- An outlier or high value
- A code for which there is a very low frequency
- A code for which there is a very high frequency

The next eight questions pertain to the following table (Table 2):

**Table 2**

Number of Pregnancies of Study Participants | Frequency | Percentage | Cumulative Percentage |

0 | 24 | 11.1 | 11.1 |

1 | 29 | 13.5 | 24.6 |

2 | 78 | 36.3 | 60.9 |

3 | 46 | 21.4 | 82.3 |

4 | 22 | 10.2 | 92.5 |

5 | 11 | 5.1 | 97.6 |

6 | 4 | 1.9 | 99.5 |

7 | 1 | 0.4 | 100.0 |

Total | 215 | 100.0 |

2.13 In Table 2, the variable is _______ and the measurement level is _________. (Fill in the blanks.)

- Discrete, interval

*b. Discrete, ratio

- Continuous, interval
- Continuous, ratio

2.14. Table 2 is an example of a:

*a. Frequency distribution

- Grouped frequency distribution
- Class interval
- Data matrix

2.15. In Table 2, the value of *N* is:

- 24
- 100.0

*c. 215

- 7

2.16. In Table 2, the cumulative relative frequency for five or fewer pregnancies is:

- 210
- 199
- 92.5

*d. 97.6

2.17. The best way to graph information in Table 2 would be to construct:

*a. A histogram

- A pie chart
- A bar graph
- Either a pie chart or a bar graph

2.18. In Table 2, the distribution of data would be described as:

- Symmetric

*b. Positively skewed

- Negatively skewed
- It cannot be determined.

2.19. In Table 2, the distribution of data would be described as:

*a. Unimodal

- Bimodal
- Multimodal
- It cannot be determined.

2.20. In Table 2, the most likely number to be an outlier is:

- 0
- 1

*c. 7