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Chapter Two: Foundations of Effective Instruction
Multiple Choice Questions
1. A key component of teacher effectiveness includes:
a. the undertaking of weekly reviews.
b. keeping parents involved as much as possible.
c. the provision of guided and independent practice to students.
d. the learning student achieves.
2. Where might one find the explicit curriculum?
a. Teacher lesson plans
b. School documents
c. State standards and school district curriculum guidelines
d. Educational research
3. All the following are components of an IEP except:
a. description of child’s cultural background.
b. projected date for the beginning of the services and modifications.
c. explanation of how the child’s parents will be regularly informed of their child’s
d. statement of the child’s present level of academic achievement.
4. Research has shown the value of the comprehensive curriculum for students with special
needs. Which of the following is a proven reality, further justifying the need for
comprehensive curriculum for students with disabilities?
a. Many students in special education are not being adequately prepared for adulthood.
b. Educational programs tend to focus on academic needs only.
c. The comprehensive curriculum currently exists only at the elementary school level.
d. Teachers are overusing anecdotal reports as a substitute for the comprehensive
5. Which step of the PURPOSE approach to learning requires teachers to review each
component of skill’s task analysis?
a. Prepare the student to learn the skill
b. Understand the skill steps
c. Rehearse the skill
d. Perform a self-check
6. Student-directed learning is an important component of effective instruction because:
a. Teacher’s methods aren’t always guaranteed to work.
b. Students must become independent learners and take responsibility for their own
c. It is a requirement of high stakes assessment protocols.
d. It shows teachers are paying attention to empirically-based research.
7. Why is goal planning an important skill to teach?
a. It helps the student clarify behaviorally what is required of them to achieve their goal.
b. It identifies what the student wants to do.
c. Because researchers say it is.
d. It determines the reward system that the teacher will use.
8. Shortening assignments, changing assessment criteria, and providing extra time are
a. assignment adaptations.
b. alternative technology.
c. homework adjustments.
d. testing adaptations.
9. Which of the following is not a component of problem-based learning?
a. Exploration of topics
b. Choosing a topic
c. Cooperative learning
d. Self- management
10. Which of the following strategies involve a teacher modeling a learning-related process
by talking through the steps of a task to reach a specific conclusion?
a. Problem-based learning
b. Peer tutoring
d. Cooperative learning
11. Which of the following can be used to provide effective grading interventions?
a. Assistive technology
b. Use of portfolios
c. Personalized grading plans
d. Use of checklists
12. Self-monitoring, self-instruction, self-evaluation, and self-reinforcement are components
a. Teacher-directed instruction
b. Student-directed learning
c. Problem-based learning
13. Any type of material that requires reading as a primary source of information is known
a. textual materials.
b. content enhancement.
c. learning strategies.
d. graphic organizers.
14. The IEP is the primary document which outlines all of the following except:
a. transitional planning.
b. vocational assignment.
d. specific plans for services.
15. Which is an example of peer mediated learning?
b. Universal Design for Learning
c. Personalized Grading Plans
16. One of the major motivations for designing and implementing adaptations for students
with disabilities is:
a. teachers making their jobs easier for themselves.
b. lowering of standards and expectations for students with learning disabilities.
c. it boosts scores and results for high stakes assessment statistics.
d. lack of motivation to learn caused by lack of understanding of content.
17. What instructional adaptation includes consultative arrangements, additional help from
special educators and sharing of teaching assistants?
a. Instructional planning
b. Cooperative teaching
c. Assistive technology
d. Personalized grading plans
18. Which of the following is characterized by dividing the physical classroom arrangement
into sections, separating course content and class work into distinct lessons, and assigning
students to separate groups?
a. One teaching and one assisting
b. Station teaching
c. Parallel teaching
d. Alternative leading
19. A reward system is a subskill of:
a. problem-based learning.
b. teacher-directed learning.
c. cooperative learning.
20. Students who can successfully demonstrate competence in using learning strategies have
a higher chance of:
a. receiving more adaptations to their curriculum.
b. learning in a more self-regulated and in an independent manner.
c. being peer tutors.
d. studying a more functionally based curriculum.
21. Which of the following actions show that a teacher is utilizing culturally responsive
a. Teacher is knowledgeable about several cultures.
b. Teacher utilizes a wide range of teaching materials.
c. Teacher uses a variety of instructional techniques that cater to cultural learning needs,
preferences, and communication styles of students.
d. Teaching explicitly outlines all assignments.
22. What should teachers focus on in providing the success of students with disabilities in
terms of access to the general curriculum?
a. Instructional planning
b. Learning strategies
c. Classroom adaptations
d. Cooperative learning
23. Choose the teacher-directed instruction that engages teachers in the instructional method.
a. Social constructivist
b. Direct Instruction
c. Whole Language
d. Language for learning
24. Functional academics, daily, and community living skills, and transition-related skills are
definitive components of:
a. vocational training.
b. life skills curriculum.
d. an IEP.
25. Which strategy analyzes the curriculum and generates instructional units and lesson plans
to promote academic engagement?
a. Content enhancement
b. Academic skills remediation
c. Tutorial instruction
d. Academic content mastery
Short Answer Questions
26. Describe three main purposes of IEPs.
27. What is student-directed learning and how does it encourage students to become
28. Why is it important to incorporate technology in the inclusive classroom?
29. Teachers, especially special education teachers, should be able to interpret the
functionality of grade-level standards. Discuss.
30. Using at least two examples, explain why peer-mediated strategies may be helpful to
students with disabilities.
Chapter 2 Answers
Short Question Answers
1. Three principal purposes of an IEP include: provides instructional direction; forms basis
for evaluation; and improves communication among teachers, parents and students.
27. Student-directed learning include strategies that students employ to control their learning
and behavior. These strategies help students become independent learners by equipping them
with self-regulation skills. Self-regulation skills help student navigate the learning
environment and leads to increase school success (i.e., both academically and behaviorally).
28. It is important to incorporate technology in the inclusive classroom because it: (i) equips
students with disabilities with skills to use technology which they may not have otherwise
been exposed to; (ii) increases students participation and contribution to activities in the
classroom; (iii) increases interaction with individuals who do not have disabilities; (iv) helps
students meet the challenges of daily life; (v) provides vehicles to help overcome barriers to
inclusion and independence; (vi) fosters social interactions with peers.
29. Students with disabilities need to be taught skills so that they are functional in society.
Therefore, teachers should teach performance standards (i.e., common core) that are
functionally relevant to students with special needs. They must equip students with skills that
will prepare them the environments in which they will live, work, play, and learn when
formal schooling ends. For example, a teacher may choose to teach occupational vocabulary
during social studies to help prepare students for employment.
30. Peer-mediated strategies promote learning within the context of collaborative interactions
among students. They help develop self-directed learners who are able to work
interdependently. Students benefit by being able to direct their own learning activities and
knowing how to work with others in joint talks or how to seek assistance from others when
needed. Two examples include (i) peer tutoring. Peer tutoring typically, but not always,
involves the pairing of a more skilled student with a student who is less proficient in a
particular behavioral or academic area. Advantages of peer tutoring include: (a) children can
effectively teach each other skills when tutors emphasize repetition, mastery, and a review
system; (b) tutors are able to learn from teaching others; (c) tutors can individualize content
material to meet the needs of each student; (d) students can engage in one-to-one instruction
without requiring a full class lesson; (e) one-to-one teaching greatly increases the opportunity
for correct responses by the tutee; and (f) tutors and tutees gain in self-esteem, self-respect,
and ability to interact with each other on a constructive and appropriate basis.
(ii) Cooperative Learning. Cooperative learning (CL) support of students while
simultaneously promoting the learning of academic and behavioral skills. It is important for a
heterogeneous student population because it promotes learning among students of various
abilities. Teachers may use cooperative learning to check on individual accountability while
having members engage in the problem solving process.