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Chapter 2 — Historical Contexts
Multiple Choice – Select the best answer possible for each question.
- _____ identify important issues related to children and teaching, but don’t put ideas into practice with children and families.
- _____ present new and interesting ideas about child development and learning, and work in early care and education settings.
- Martin Luther was
- recognized reading as essential for all children in German society.
- the first male physician in Italy.
- the first person to use the term
- began the nursery school movement in London.
- Martin Luther suggested all of the following except
- all towns and villages should have schools.
- only girls should receive an education.
- schools should foster intellectual, religious, physical, emotional, and social development. d. educating the whole child.
- John Amos Comenius was
- an educational theorist who wanted boys and girls, bright or dull, rich or poor, to receive an education.
- an Irish doctor who suggested that movement and activity are signs of healthy learning experiences.
- an educator who suggested that young children learn best from teacher-planned experiences.
- a psychoanalyst who suggested that children should not take charge of their own learning until they are teenagers.
- Jean Jacques Rousseau suggested in his writings that
- formal education should begin when a child turns 5 years old.
- young children do not learn from the natural world.
- sensory experiences are the building blocks for early learning.
- children think, reason, and learn like adults.
- children should always follow the teacher’s advice in choosing the best tasks for their developmental progress.
- Johann Pestalozzi
- suggested that Piaget’s unlimited freedom needed adult guidance and limits.
- modeled careful observation of children and the importance of the teacher–child relationship.
- discouraged older and younger children from developing strong relationships.
- suggested that children didn’t have a natural interest in learning through their senses.
- Friedrich Froebel
- developed the concept of kindergarten and circle time.
- de-emphasized the importance of the relationship between mother and child.
- suggested that singing at home wouldn’t influence learning.
- recognized the negative effects of music on the concentration levels of preschoolers.
- Maria Montessori
- founded the first early education program in Venice, Italy, called Casa dei Pepe.
- believed that institutionalized children couldn’t be educated.
- was the first female physician in Italy and first to establish an education program in the slums of Rome.
- created the first nursery school in Spain called Casa de Niños.
- Margaret and Rachel McMillan
- focused on health issues in early childhood education in England.
- are noted for developing the concept of kindergarten and circle time.
- were the first female physicians in London, England, and first to establish an education program in the slums of London.
- developed the first Montessori school in Germany.
- The Open-Air Nursery can be characterized by all of the following except
- emphasized indoor play and no outdoor play.
- gardening, sandbox play, building with scraps of materials.
- bathing, clean clothes, healthy meals, medical and dental care.
- facilitated emotional development.
- Lev Vygotsky, a Russian scholar, is noted for all of the following except
- the zone of proximal development.
- the relationship between language and thought in childhood.
- the role of play in the development of symbolic thinking and overall growth.
- recognizing that children learn best by being passive learners.
- Sigmund Freud
- created a complex theory based on his study of human personality and emotional development.
- focused on health issues in early childhood education in England and developed the Open-Air Nursery.
- developed psychosocial stages of personality development.
- identified the zone of proximal development.
- All of the following are stages of Freud’s psychosexual development except
- the oral stage, 0 to 1 year olds, exploring through sucking on things.
- the anal stage, 1 to 3 year olds, pleasure through independent elimination.
- the symbolic stage, 5 to 11 year olds, control of sexual urges by socializing with samesex peers.
- the latency stage, 5 to 11 year olds, control of sexual urges by socializing with same-sex peers.
- the genital stage, 11+ years of age, interest in opposite sex.
- Jean Piaget focused on
- humankind’s acquisition of social skills by satisfying psychosocial needs.
- humankind’s acquisition of knowledge and the construction of that knowledge.
- stages of psychosexual development.
- sensorimotor, phallic, concrete operation, and abstract concrete operation stages of cognitive development.
- Constructivist theories suggest all of the following except
- individuals actively construct knowledge on an ongoing basis.
- we are all constantly receiving new information.
- we are all engaging in experiences that lead us to revise our understanding of the world.
- we create our own knowledge through rewards and punishments.
- individuals actively learn by doing.
- Characteristics of a constructivist learning environment are all of the following except
- learning involves socialization and collaboration.
- activities are teacher centered.
- encourages students to integrate and connect information.
- students’ interests drive topic selection.
- John Dewey’s Progressive Movement
- influenced the rapid growth in the availability of education in Europe.
- influenced the rapid growth in the availability of education in Canada.
- was a catalyst for the reform efforts of progressive education in the 1920s and 1930s.
- was a catalyst for the reform efforts of progressive education in the 1820s and 1830s.
- John Dewey’s major ideas include all of the following except
- life should be infused by education.
- education should preserve social values.
- social interactions strengthen and support learning.
- planning is based solely on teachers’ instincts and interests.
- active learning equals true learning.
- Erik Erikson, a German-born psychoanalyst, emphasized
- cognitive development through 10 stages.
- that growth in personality follows a clear plan determined by genetics.
- psychosexual stages of development.
- physical development through 8 stages of physical-motor development
- Patty Smith Hill and Lucy Sprague Mitchell helped start _____at Columbia University Teachers College and the Bureau of Educational Experiments, respectively. Montessori schools
- laboratory nursery schools
- parent cooperative schools
- Goddard schools
- Bank Street College of Education was formerly known as
- Bureau of Educational Experiments
- Nursery Schools Cooperative
- The Progressive Teacher Training Institute
- Hill Academy of Teacher Training
- Head Start was modeled after programs that had all of the following characteristics except
- child-sized equipment, variety of materials.
- half-day program.
- included health care.
- involved parents in education.
- The Perry Preschool Project was developed to help
- low-income children graduate from high school.
- low-income children enter public school with more chance of success.
- African American children improve their IQs.
- African Americans make more money as adults.
- Louise Derman-Sparks continues to write and speak about issues of _____
- kindergarten curriculum.
- the importance of outdoor play.
- diversity and young children.
- children’s health.
- _____ is the period that refers to the Child Study movement.
- The end of the 19th century and beginning of the 20th century
- The beginning of the 21st century
- The end of the 20th century and beginning of the 21st century
- The end of the 18th century and the beginning of the 19th century
- During World War II, child care programs like the one found at the Kaiser Shipyards in
Portland, Oregon, offered all of the following except
- located at work sites and open 24 hours a day.
- inflexible attendance schedules.
- infirmaries for sick children.
- family consultants.
- home food service.
- Sputnik launched a renewed interest in
- preschool education and an emphasis on early intellectual development.
- factory-supported child care programs.
- church-based nursery schools emphasizing play.
- home schooling.
- The War on Poverty provided
- statistics on developmentally appropriate early experiences for disadvantaged children.
- money to fund early childhood programs for low-income families.
- insight into the lives of Europe’s child care programs.
- documentation of equity in all child care programs for disadvantaged children.
- Head Start serves
- multicultural children, emphasizing the development of the whole child.
- low-income children, providing quality educational experiences and opportunities for parent
- multicultural children, emphasizing the development of cognitive skills and working with parents.
- low-income children, emphasizing the development of language and cognitive skills.
- The basic goal of the No Child Left Behind Act is to
- provide schools and teachers with the support needed to allow all children to have a quality education.
- provide schools and teachers with financial rewards for their achievement as teachers. c. enforce strict retention policies.
- encourage teachers to pursue other career options.
- The No Child Left Behind Act focuses on all of the following except
- strengthening teacher quality by requiring states to put a highly qualified teacher in every classroom.
- promoting English proficiency for limited-English-proficient students.
- renewing interest to ensure all children can read.
- reducing schools’ access to federal and local funds.
- Comenius believed that movement and activity were sure signs of healthy learning. (T / F)
- For most of recorded history, boys were the only ones to receive formal education. (T / F)
- Many of the key methods and materials used in early childhood settings can be traced to American theorists and practitioners. (T / F)
- Pestalozzi felt that some children would not be able to learn. (T / F)
- Froebel emphasized the value of singing at home and in settings for young children. (T / F)
- Arnold Gesell studied children’s atypical development. (T / F)
- Lucy Sprague Mitchell directed the Ruggles Street Nursery. (T / F)
- John B. Watson was the father of the Progressive Education movement. (T / F)
- David P. Weikart began the Perry Preschool Project in 1962. (T / F)
- Louise Derman-Sparks popularized the project approach to learning. (T / F)
- Define negative education.
- Define Vygotsky’s zone of proximal development.
- What was the Child Study movement?
- Give three characteristics of constructivist learning.
- What childhood experiences did Dr. Joe L. Frost use to become a leading proponent of play during his career?
- Provide one example of a project approach learning experience.
- What was Project Follow Through? Describe it briefly.
- Describe one factor that the Children’s Defense Fund identified that must be changed in America before the No Child Left Behind Act can attain its goal.
- In general, how have theorists influenced the field of early care and education?
- Compare and contrast the influences European theorists brought to the field of early learning as compared to those of American influences.
- Rousseau believed in “negative education” — the absence of formal instruction until age 12.
Can you identify both strengths and limitations of this concept?
- Pestalozzi emphasized the importance of teacher–student relationships. Do you agree they are important? What do you see as the benefits of strong relationships with students? Can you identify any disadvantages or weaknesses?
- Froebel was the first to use circle time as an educational tool in teaching young children. Why is this grouping of children effective as a management and teaching tool?
- Dewey felt that true education only occurs in social situations. Do you agree or disagree? Can you give some specific examples that either support or refute this concept?
- How is the Anti-Biased Curriculum: Tools for Empowering Young Children, written by Louise Derman-Sparks in 1989, influencing education in early childhood settings today?
1. a 1. T
2. b 2. T
3. a 3. F
4. b 4. F
5. a 5. T
6. c 6. F
7. b 7. F
8. a 8. F
9. c 9. T
10. a 10. F