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**Chapter 2: A Powerful Way to Investigate Human Behavior Is by Making**

**Measurements and Looking for Correlations among Them**

2.1. Correlational research involves making _____ and looking for relationships among

them.

(a) hypotheses (b) theories (c) measurements (d) assumptions

(e) constraints on one’s beliefs

ANSWER: C

DIFFICULTY LEVEL: E

2.2. Which of these relationships could be assessed most directly by a coefficient of

correlation?

(a) between a husband and wife

(b) how similar a brother is to his sister

(c) between the philosophies of Plato and Aristotle

(d) between aptitude test scores and performance on a job in a group of

employees

(e) between the Magna Carta and the U.S. Constitution

ANSWER: D

DIFFICULTY LEVEL: M

2.3. The advantage to a coefficient of correlation over a verbal statement of whether or

not two attributes are related is that a coefficient of correlation conveys the _____ of

relationship.

(a) degree, or strength

(b) qualitative aspect rather than the quantitative aspect

(c) meaning (d) importance

ANSWER: A

DIFFICULTY LEVEL: M

2.4. The coefficient of correlation measures the degree of ______ of a relationship.

(a) generality (b) measurement (c) specificity

(d) normalcy of the distribution (e) none of these

ANSWER: E

DIFFICULTY LEVEL: C

2.5. The coefficient of correlation varies from

(a) 0 to 1 (b) – to + c) – 1 to + 1 (d) 0 to 100 (e) 1 to 7

ANSWER: C

DIFFICULTY LEVEL: E

2.6. Correlation is NOT a direct measure of

(a) causation (b) relationship

(c) the extent to which you can predict one thing from another

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(d) whether people who are similar on one thing are similar on another

(e) how much you expect Y to increase when X increases by one unit

ANSWER: A

DIFFICULTY LEVEL: E

2.7. A correlation coefficient of +2.2 suggests

(a) a strong positive relationship

(b) a strong negative relationship

(c) a weak positive relationship

(d) a weak positive relationship

(e) an error in arithmetic

ANSWER: E

DIFFICULTY LEVEL: E

2.8. Which coefficient represents the strongest degree of relationship, or association?

(a) .00 (b) .44 (c) .88 (d) .30

(e) 2.20

ANSWER: C

DIFFICULTY LEVEL: E

2.9. Tall fathers tend to have tall sons. That statement reflects a/an

(a) experimental result (b) positive correlation

(c) negative correlation (d) causal statement

ANSWER: B

DIFFICULTY LEVEL: E

2.10. Which would be a negative correlation?

(a) height and weight

(b) age and shoe size in children 3 to 13

(c) age and time to run a mile in children 3 to 13

(d) X and 2X

(e) IQ and school grades

ANSWER: C

DIFFICULTY LEVEL: C

2.11. Mrs. Kelly notices that her child, Robin, does less homework as she watches more

TV. A proper inference for her to draw is that

(a) watching TV causes less homework to be done

(b) Robin’s TV watching is positively correlated with the amount of

homework done

(c) Robin’s TV watching is negatively correlated with the amount of

homework done

(d) all of these

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ANSWER: C

DIFFICULTY LEVEL: M

2.12. Which would be a positive correlation?

(a) the weight of clothing people tend to wear and temperature from 0 to 90

degrees

(b) age and shoe size in 20-year-old men

(c) age and distance run in one minute in adults from ages 30 to 90

(d) X and -2X

(e) age and how far a child can throw a ball in children 3 to 13

ANSWER: E

DIFFICULTY LEVEL: C

2.13. Correlation coefficients are often calculated on what are called “continuous

measures,” such as height, weight, amount of rainfall, size of trees, IQ scores, etc. It is

symbolized by the letter r. The kind of correlation coefficient that is used for a 2 X 2

table is called a/an ____ coefficient.

(a) alpha (b) beta (c) chi (d) phi (e) omega

ANSWER: D

DIFFICULTY LEVEL: E

2.14. If the correlation between test scores and job performance is .30, there will be many

people misclassified. This implies that

(a) in the face of so many misclassifications, the test should be used, but other

factors should be used as well

(b) even in the face of so many misclassifications, the test should be used and

other factors should be ignored

(c) the test should not be used if there is the danger of anyone being

misclassified

(d) the issue is not raised in the text because it involves legal and ethical

issues

ANSWER: A

DIFFICULTY LEVEL: M

2.15. An investigator interested in whether males or females have, on the average,

higher scores on tests of quantitative ability would employ

(a) experimental research

(b) correlational research

(c) both experimental research and correlational research

(d) neither experimental research nor correlational research

ANSWER: B

DIFFICULTY LEVEL: E

2.16. Which of these relationships would be investigated with a correlational

approach?

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(a) between parents’ heights and children’s heights

(b) between the intensity of electrical shock and how many trials it takes an

animal to avoid the place where the shock occurs

(c) between the brightness of light and the size of the pupils of the person

looking at the light

(d) between the level of reward and the time it takes for an animal to learn a

maze

(e) between the delay of reward and the time it takes for an animal to learn a

maze

ANSWER: A

DIFFICULTY LEVEL: M

2.17. Which of these relationships would be least likely to be investigated with a

correlational approach?

(a) between IQs of identical twins

(b) between ACT scores and SAT scores on the same set of people

(c) between the heights and weights of the players on a basketball team

(d) between the dosage of a drug and the intensity of the response

(e) between age and general health

ANSWER: D

DIFFICULTY LEVEL:M

2.18. A nonzero correlation coefficient allows

(a) causal inferences (b) prediction better than chance (c) control

(d) evolution (e) variation

ANSWER: B

DIFFICULTY LEVEL: M

2.19. The method that involves measuring both the variable that you are predicting and

the variable that you are predicting from is called the _____ method.

(a) survey (b) experimental (c) control group

(d) correlational (e) none of the above

ANSWER: D

DIFFICULTY LEVEL: E

2.20. Suppose you got 30 students in a room and measured the distance from the tops

of their heads to the ceiling. So, in a room with an 8 foot ceiling, a 6-foot male would get

a “score” of 2 feet. What would the correlation be between heights as measured in the

normal way – from the floor – and the scores for distance from the head to the ceiling?

(a) 0 (b) high positive (c) low positive

(d) high negative (e) low negative

ANSWER: D

DIFFICULTY LEVEL: C

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2.21. Let’s say you wanted to examine the relationship between students’ vocabulary

skills and scores on their first math exam. You arrange for three people to score students’

essays as the measure of vocabulary skills. They all agree on the criteria for essay scoring

in such a way that other people would come up with the same or similar scores when

judging the same essays for vocabulary skills. This would mean the measure for

vocabulary skills is subjected to the standard scientific practice of

(a) exclusivity

(b) adverse impact

(c) public verifiability

(d) measurement error

ANSWER: C

DIFFICULTY LEVEL: M