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CHAPTER TWO – THE FIELD OF EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION
Select the one best answer for each item.
- The greatest percentage of programs for children under 5 are
- publicly funded by federal resources.
- private and supported by tuition paid by the families of the children who attend.
- publicly funded by state money.
- financed by local school districts.
- Early Learning Standards were created to
- describe what children should know and be able to do before they start kindergarten.
- designate specific curriculum for early childhood programs.
- increase inclusion for children with special needs into programs with typically developing children.
- ensure that kindergarten classrooms are appropriate for young children.
- The term “full inclusion” refers to
- an individualized plan for children with disabilities.
- the inclusion of Early Learning Standards in curriculum planning and assessment.
- programs where children with disabilities are placed in general education classrooms for the entire school day.
- state laws that require that all low income children be included in state-funded pre-K programs.
- A Quality Rating and Improvement Systems (QRIS) is
- a systemic approach to assessing, improving, and communicating the level of quality in early and school-age care and education programs that has been adapted by many states.
- a systemic approach to assessing, improving, and communicating the level of quality in teacher education programs that has been adapted by many teacher training institutions.
- a systemic approach to assessing, improving, and communicating the level of quality in Head Start/Early Head Start program.
- a set of Early Learning Standards that are used by many states.
- NAEYC stands for
- National Association for Early Education of Young Children.
- National Association for the Education of Young Children.
- National Academy for the Education of Young Children.
- National Association for Early Care of Young Children.
- Which of the following types of programs provides care for the majority of children under age 5 in the United States?
- organized child care facilities
- Head Start
- non-relatives in the child-care provider’s home
- The Head Start /Early Head Start Program
- serves all eligible children in the United States.
- serves children from birth through age 8.
- is designed to provide programs for children from low income families.
- Family-Child Interaction Programs
- were developed to meet the needs of children with disabilities.
- are housed in private homes.
- are based on the assumption that families are children’s first and most important teachers.
- are funded through Early Head Start funding.
- Child care is most expensive for which age group?
- School-age children
- A 2016 study of two early childhood programs that serve large numbers of low-income children produced the following finding:
- Children in these programs showed no significant difference in achievement in elementary school than did children not enrolled in the program.
- Children in these programs were better readers than children not enrolled in the program and children in both groups had similar math scores.
- Children enrolled in the program were more likely than children not enrolled in the program to be retained in third-, fourth- and fifth-grade.
- Children enrolled the program had fewer special education placements than those not enrolled in the program.
- Training and professional preparation requirements for teachers of children from birth through age 5
- are mandated by federal licensing standards.
- are the same as those required for teachers of children aged 5-8.
- are determined by program licensing requirements developed by each state.
- always require that the teacher hold a CDA credential.
- Which of the following is true regarding regulations and standards that ensure highquality programs for young children?
- The rules and regulations included in licensing standards are consistent across the nation and ensure the highest standard of care and education for children.
- Federal child care standards ensure the quality of federally funded programs.
- The National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) has an accreditation program that identifies quality centers that surpass standards required by licensing regulations.
- Rules and regulations for programs children from 3-5 are the same as those for children in public kindergarten and elementary programs.
- There is less consensus on the purpose of kindergarten than in any other area of education. One of the reasons for having less consensus is that
- kindergartens are not firmly established as an integral part of the K-12 system.
- kindergartens are not mandatory in all states.
- some states have half-day kindergarten programs; others have full-day programs.
- literacy skills are taught today in the kindergarten.
- Common Core Standards are
- standards developed by states that determine the extent to which a child has mastered proscribed content.
- standards that identify goals and objectives for all curriculum areas for each agegroup.
- nationally agreed on literacy and math curriculum standards.
- federally mandated standards that must be met for programs to receive federal funding.
- Early childhood program licensing requirements for teacher education vary from state to state. Which of the following is true?
- Most states require teachers to have a child development associate credential (CDA), or an associate’s (2-year) degree.
- In many states, lead teachers are only required to have a high school diploma and a background check.
- Most states require lead teachers to have a minimum of a bachelor’s (4 year) degree in early childhood education.
- Rules about teacher preparation are consistent from state to state.
- Early learning standards, also called early learning guidelines, were created to
- describe what children should know and be able to do before they start kindergarten.
- raise program quality by guiding early childhood educators in designing assessments to test children’s knowledge.
- weed out low-quality early childhood programs.
- help educators predict what they should teach so that children are successful on standardized tests.
- The National Education Goals Panel identified three components of readiness. Which of the items below lists these correctly?
- Readiness in the child, schools’ readiness for children, family’s ability to support learning at home
- Child’s score on readiness assessment, availability of adequate kindergarten spaces, school curriculum developed to ensure success
- Readiness in the child, school’s readiness for children, accurate assessment standards and instruments
- Readiness in the child, school’s readiness for children, family and community supports
- Programs that have met a set of criteria for high quality as determined by a professional organization are referred to as a.
- Which of the following is the mechanism that programs serving children birth through age 5 use to ensure children’s safety and adequate teacher preparation? a. Licensure of programs
- Licensure of teachers
- Performance standards
- State funded Public pre-K Programs
- have shown a rapid decrease in enrollment in the past ten years.
- are required by federal education mandates.
- vary by state in their availability and their eligibility requirements.
- are available to all children in all states.
Answer each of the following questions in an approximate 1/2 page short answer.
- Name and give a brief description of three types of early childhood care and education programs serving young children today.
- Some advocacy organizations that focus on early childhood are concerned about the content and implementation of the Common Core Standards. Describe three of these
- Explain what early childhood educators mean when they use the term “readiness.”
- Explain the increasing prevalence of Pre-K programs in the United States and describe some of the benefits of these programs as well as some of the challenges that they face.
Chapter 2—The Field
1. Early childhood care and education programs serving young children today include:
a. Child care centers
b. Family child care
c. Laboratory schools
d. Parent cooperatives
e. Head Start
f. Home visiting
g. Family-child interaction programs
h. Pre-K, public kindergarten
i. Early intervention programs
j. Programs for children with disabilities
k. Public school
l. Private school
m. Home school
(See Sections–Early Childhood Education, Head Start, Early Childhood Family
2. Common Core Standards concerns include:
• The standards as written focus on only two curriculum areas rather than on all
developmental domains including social and emotional and physical development.
• Some educators also question whether these standards are appropriate for young
children because they are based on expectations for high school graduation that have
been traced back to younger learners.
• Some educators fear that unrealistic expectations for kindergarten and primary-age
children will lead to pressure for academic achievement at the expense of the handson experiential learning that is most appropriate for young children.
(See Section–Common Core Standards)
a. Readiness is a term used to describe preparation for what comes next
b. Readiness refers to the state of early development that enables a child to engage with
kindergarten earning experiences and to successfully meet school expectations.
c. There is consensus that readiness consists of the three components: (1) readiness in
the child, (2) schools’ readiness for children, and (3) family and community supports
that contribute to children’s readiness.
(See Section–School Readiness)
4. Reasons for and issues surrounding the growing movement towards pre-K Programs in
many states include:
a. Public understanding of the positive effects of early education on children’s later
b. The belief that children who attend pre-K programs will be better prepared to meet
c. Parents are demanding the programs as their understanding of the benefits to children
d. Funding varies greatly from state to state and the reliability of funding is often in
e. Program quality and availability vary greatly from state to state.
(See Section–State Funded Prekindergarten Programs)