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Match each term to its definition or characteristic.
a. galactose k. catalyst
b. electron l. polar
c. radioactivity m. buffer
d. proton n. anion
e. amino group o. enzymes
f. glucose p. matter
g. compounds q. neutron
h. carboxyl group r. atomic weight
i. cation s. fructose
1. Positively charged atomic particle
2. Stored form of sugar in the human body
3. Having oppositely charged ends
4. COOH molecule
5. Atom with a positive charge
6. Substances that donate or remove H+
7. Atom with a negative charge
8. Primary source of energy used by most of the body’s cells
9. Substance that enhances the rate of a chemical reaction
10. NH3 molecule
1. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: E REF: 19
2. ANS: J PTS: 1 DIF: E REF: 29
3. ANS: L PTS: 1 DIF: E REF: 22
4. ANS: H PTS: 1 DIF: E REF: 31
5. ANS: I PTS: 1 DIF: E REF: 21
6. ANS: M PTS: 1 DIF: E REF: 28
7. ANS: N PTS: 1 DIF: E REF: 21
8. ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: E REF: 29
9. ANS: K PTS: 1 DIF: E REF: 24
10. ANS: E PTS: 1 DIF: E REF: 31
11. What differentiates one element from another?
a. The number of shells encircling the nucleus
b. The number of electrons
c. The number of neutrons
d. The number of protons
The number of protons in the nucleus differentiates one element from another. The number of shells
around the nucleus depends on the number of electrons, which is equal to the number of protons. The
number of neutrons can vary but does not change the element.
PTS: 1 DIF: E REF: 19 KEY: UNDERSTANDING
12. What distinguishes elements from compounds?
a. Elements can be broken down into two or more compounds.
b. Elements have only one kind of atom.
c. Elements do not combine with compounds.
d. Elements do not react with other elements.
Elements have only one kind of atom. They cannot be broken down into other constituents.
Compounds can be broken down into two or more elements, not the other way around. Elements
combine or react with other compounds as well as with other elements.
PTS: 1 DIF: E REF: 17 KEY: UNDERSTANDING
13. Which four elements make up more than 96% of the human body?
a. Oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, and iron
b. Carbon, hydrogen, calcium, and oxygen
c. Nitrogen, oxygen, carbon, and sodium
d. Oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen
Oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen are the most abundant elements in the human body and
account for 96% of its mass. Calcium, iron, and sodium are critically important to the body’s structure
and function but combined they make up less than 2% of its mass.
PTS: 1 DIF: E REF: 17 KEY: REMEMBERING
14. Electrons are found
a. orbiting around the nucleus in circular paths.
b. moving around the nucleus in concentric clouds.
c. in individual clouds (one electron per cloud) that orbit the nucleus.
d. in fixed positions on the rings that surround the nucleus.
Electrons move around the nucleus in concentric clouds that represent different energy levels.
Electrons do not orbit in circular paths like the planets orbit the Sun. The electron cloud can contain
many electrons and does not orbit the nucleus but surrounds it. Electrons do not maintain fixed
PTS: 1 DIF: M REF: 19 KEY: UNDERSTANDING
15. Where are protons and neutrons located?
a. Protons and neutrons orbit the nucleus in one or more concentric clouds.
b. Protons orbit the nucleus in a cloud, and neutrons reside in the nucleus.
c. Protons and neutrons both reside in the nucleus.
d. Neutrons orbit the nucleus in a cloud, whereas protons reside in the nucleus.
Protons and neutrons are located in the nucleus of the atom. Neither particle ever orbits the nucleus.
PTS: 1 DIF: E REF: 19 KEY: REMEMBERING
16. What are the electrons in the outer energy level (shell) called?
a. Covalent electrons
b. Bonding electrons
c. Valence electrons
d. Ionic electrons
The outer energy level is called the valence shell and the electrons are called valence electrons.
Covalent refers to a type of chemical bond between atoms. Although valence electrons are involved in
chemical bonding, the term “bonding electrons” is not used. Ionic refers to a type of chemical bond
that results in charged particles.
PTS: 1 DIF: M REF: 20 KEY: UNDERSTANDING
17. An atom is stable when the outer shell contains how many electrons?
Atoms are stable when the outer shell has eight electrons. The shell closest to the nucleus can hold two
electrons; each shell after the inner shell can hold eight.
PTS: 1 DIF: E REF: 19 KEY: UNDERSTANDING
18. Why do atoms lose, gain, or share electrons?
a. To release energy
b. To obtain stability
c. To increase bonding
d. To form compounds
Atoms lose, gain, or share electrons to achieve a full outer shell and stability. Energy is not released by
bonding but is released by breaking bonds. The bonding of two atoms does not necessarily result in a
compound; atoms of the same element bond to each other.
PTS: 1 DIF: M REF: 20 KEY: REMEMBERING
19. Which element makes up the greatest percentage of the body’s weight?
Oxygen makes up 65% of body mass. Carbon is next at 18%. Hydrogen and nitrogen comprise 10%
and 3%, respectively.
PTS: 1 DIF: M REF: 18 KEY: UNDERSTANDING
20. Which statement about isotopes is true?
a. Each isotope of an element has chemical properties that differ from those of other isotopes
of the same element.
b. Isotopes of an element have different numbers of protons.
c. Some isotopes are unstable and decay.
d. All isotopes emit radiation.
All isotopes of an element have identical chemical properties. Isotopes of an element have different
numbers of neutrons, not protons. Only unstable isotopes emit radiation as they decay.
PTS: 1 DIF: M REF: 20 KEY: REMEMBERING
21. Adding or removing electrons from an atom results in the formation of a(n)
b. different element.
d. change in the atom’s atomic weight.
Ions are atoms that have either lost or gained electrons, which changes the atom from electrically
neutral to charged. Isotopes result from a change in the number of neutrons. Adding or removing
electrons does not create a different element. The number of protons added to the number of neutrons
equals the atomic weight.
PTS: 1 DIF: M REF: 21 KEY: UNDERSTANDING
22. Which factor differentiates one element from another?
a. The number of neutrons
b. The number of protons
c. The type of bonds formed by the atoms of the element
d. The number of energy levels in the electron cloud
The number of protons is unique to each element. The number of neutrons distinguishes an element
from its isotopes. The types of bonds formed by an element do not distinguish it from another element.
Although the number of energy levels around the nucleus of different elements varies, it does not
distinguish one element from another.
PTS: 1 DIF: D REF: 19 KEY: ANALYZING
23. What makes atoms electrically neutral?
a. An equal number of protons and electrons
b. The formation of ionic bonds
c. An equal number of electrons and neutrons
d. Neutrons, which neutralize the electrically charged protons and electrons
Atoms are neutral because the number of negatively charged electrons equals the number of positively
charged protons. Ionic bonding produces a charged molecule. Neutrons are not charged, so they cannot
cancel out electrons or “neutralize” a charge.
PTS: 1 DIF: E REF: 19 KEY: UNDERSTANDING
24. What causes an atom to emit radiation?
a. The electron cloud emits small amounts of radiation as the electrons accelerate.
b. Unstable isotopes emit radiation as they decay.
c. Atoms emit radiation when covalent bonds break down.
d. Atoms emit radiation when ionic bonds break down.
An unstable isotope will seek a more stable state by emitting radiation from its nucleus. Electron
clouds do not emit radiation. Breaking chemical bonds releases energy, not radiation.
PTS: 1 DIF: D REF: 20 KEY: UNDERSTANDING
25. Transfer of electrons from an atom of one element to an atom of another element results in
a. a covalent bond.
b. an ionic bond
c. a hydrogen bond.
d. one unstable atom and one stable atom.
Transfer of electrons from one atom to another is the definition of ionic bonding. Covalent and
hydrogen bonds do not involve transfer of electrons. Ionic bonding creates a stable molecule because
both atoms have full outer shells.
PTS: 1 DIF: D REF: 21 KEY: ANALYZING
26. Covalent bonds form when
a. positively charged hydrogen atoms attract negatively charged atoms.
b. electrostatic forces bring atoms together to form a new molecule.
c. two atoms share electrons to fill their outer shells.
d. a nitrogen atom combines with a carbon atom.
Covalent bonding occurs when electrons are shared by two atoms so that each has a complete outer
shell of eight electrons. The attraction of hydrogen atoms to oxygen atoms is an example of hydrogen
bonding. Electrostatic forces pull ions together; no electrons are shared. Nitrogen and carbon are
involved in peptide bonds.
PTS: 1 DIF: M REF: 22 KEY: UNDERSTANDING
27. How do water molecules form, and what factors create water’s hydrogen bond?
a. Each of two hydrogen atoms donates its electron to an oxygen atom to fill its outer shell.
This forms two hydrogen anions and one oxygen cation. The larger oxygen cation attracts
the two hydrogen anions, forming two attachments called hydrogen bonds and creating the
neutral water molecule.
b. Two hydrogen atoms covalently bond to an oxygen atom. This forms a water molecule
that is weakly positive on the hydrogen side and weakly negative on the oxygen side.
These opposing charges form a mild attachment to other water molecules called a
c. The single electron on the shell of a hydrogen atom bonds covalently to another hydrogen
atom to complete both outer shells. This H2 molecule now has two weakly positive ends,
which attract a weakly negative oxygen atom. This attachment is the hydrogen bond and
forms the water molecule.
d. The electrons of two hydrogen atoms form ionic bonds with an oxygen atom, forming a
water molecule with four free electrons on the oxygen side. The hydrogen side has a
strong positive charge because the single protons are no longer countered by their
electrons. The oxygen side is negatively charged because it now has more electrons than
protons. The positively charged hydrogen side of one water molecule attracts the
negatively charged oxygen side of another water molecule. Each hydrogen atom forms a
weak attachment with two of an oxygen atom’s remaining electrons. These are the
Water molecules form when two hydrogen atoms covalently bond (i.e., share electrons) to an oxygen
atom. The two hydrogen atoms have weak, positive charges, whereas the oxygen side has a weak,
negative charge. The partially positive oxygen side of one water molecule is attracted to the partially
negative hydrogen side of another molecule. This results in a weak attachment called a hydrogen bond.
Hydrogen does not donate its electron, it shares it with the oxygen atom. Therefore, it does not form
ions and the water molecule is not neutral. Hydrogen atoms do not first bond to each other and then to
an oxygen atom. Each hydrogen bonds with the oxygen separately. Two covalently bonded hydrogen
atoms will have no free electrons to share with an oxygen atom. The hydrogen atoms form covalent
bonds, not ionic bonds.
PTS: 1 DIF: D REF: 22 KEY: UNDERSTANDING
28. Electrons moving around a nucleus is an example of
a. potential energy.
b. kinetic energy.
c. electrical energy.
d. radiant energy.
Kinetic energy is energy in motion; thus, the movement of electrons is an example of kinetic energy.
Potential energy is stored energy. Electrical energy is the movement of charged particles. Radiant
energy is energy that travels in waves, like heat generated by a light bulb.
PTS: 1 DIF: E REF: 23 KEY: UNDERSTANDING
29. Metabolism is
a. the breakdown of food in the digestive tract.
b. the creation of complex molecules from smaller units.
c. all the chemical reactions that occur in the body.
d. the chemical processes performed by the liver.
Metabolism refers to all chemical processes that occur in the body. Digestion of food is just one